PSYCH101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Erogenous Zone, Thematic Apperception Test, Rorschach Test

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31 Aug 2018
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PERSONALITY
Definition: characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and behaving that is unique to
each individual and remains relatively consistent over time and situation
Sigmund Freud – victims of discrimination
Biography – The Interpretation of Dreams 1900 – successful in US, translated back to
German issues
- Studies to be neurologist (one of only careers for Jewish people)
- Hysteria – patients truly believe they have a problem, Freud takes interest in it
- Classic psychiatrist setting: coach, therapist sit behind patient
- Moved to England
Psychodynamic theory of personality – inner/unconscious forces interact to make us
who we are
- Behaviour, emotions and personality develop in dynamic interactions btw
conscious and unconscious forces
Famous neo-Freudians – Otto Rank, Karen Horney, Anna Freud, Erik Ericson
Famous Feud-Freudians – Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Harry Stark Sullivan, Erik Ericson
Structures of Personality
Id
Collection of basic biological drives, libido, animal nature
- Exist only in unconscious level
- Operate on pleasure principle
- Inborn biological instinct (Eros vs Thanatos)
Ego
Decision maker
operate on reality principle,
- Exist in conscious/preconscious levels
- Managing executive - regulate of thoughts + emotions
Superego
Values + moral standards
- Exist in all three levels of consciousness
- Operate on ego ideal
- Internalization of parental & social codes
Layers of personality
Conscious
Thoughts and perception
, current awareness
Subconscious
Memories, stored knowledge
Unconscious
Fear, violent
motives, unacceptable sexual desires, irrational
thinking, immoral urges, shameful experiences, selfish needs
Routes to Unconscious
- Free associations – “the couch
- Mistakes – “Freudian slips”; forgetting name
- Dream content – manifest + latent
- Projective test – standardized set of ambiguous prompts designed to reveal inner dynamics
o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Rorschach inkblot test
o Trait approach – ones capable of deceiving are more likely to perceive general population as
selfish/cynical
Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development
Oral (0
-
1 ½ yrs)
Erogenous zone
mouth
Key developmental task – weaning, foundation of ego
Fixation – basic lack of self-confidence & “ego-strength”, leaving person more vulnerable,
and more dependent on outside supports like relationships or addiction
- Oral dependent - excessive gratification passive, dependent, gullible
- Oral aggressive - excessive frustration argumentative, cynical, exploitive, cruel
Expressions: gum-chewing, nail-biting, smoking, kissing, eating disorders, alcoholism
Anal (1
½ - 3)
Erogenous zone: anus
Key developmental task: toilet training, sense of control & competence
Fixation – can occur if parent is putting too much pressure
- Anal expulsive - excessive gratification sloppy, careless, messy, disorderly
- Anal retentive - excessive frustration compulsive cleanliness, orderly, stubborn
Expression: Neil Simon’s “The Odd Couple
Phallic
(3-6)
Erogenous zone:
genitals
Key developmental task: sexual identity, development of superego
Boys – oedipal complex – incestuous attraction to mom, castration anxiety
Girls – electra complex – penis envy, incestuous attraction to father
Fixation – problem w/ jealously and obsession w/ power & sex
- Homosexual was taken as psychological disorder
- Lead to stigma against single parent
Expression: macho (male), flirty or overly dominant (female)
Latency
(6 –
puberty)
Erogenous zone: puberty
Key developmental task: gender roles
- Period of rich personal development, where they gain most of their intellectual, social,
artistic and physical skills
Genital
(puberty
– on)
Erogenous zone: genital
Key developmental task: intimacy, procreation
Personality – caring, responsibility, mutual gratification; intimacy issues, sexual dysfunction
Neurosis + anxiety – depend on fixation repression of unresolved conflicts
Expressions: defense mechanisms, intimacy issues and sexual dysfunctions
Idiographic
approach
Creating detailed descriptions of a specific person’s
unique personality characteristics
- Helpful for understanding oneself + social world, and
full range of human experience
Nomothetic
approach
Examine personality in large groups of people, w/ aim of
making generalizations about personality structure
- Examines factors that predict certain behaviours across
people in general
- Determines what types of people are more/less likely
to engage in certain behaviours
- Identify important personality traits that are related to
whatever it is that you are interested in understanding
Trait Perspective
Personality trait = person’s habitual patterns of thinking, feeling and
behaving
- Useful as short-cuts to understanding people
Gordon Allport – developed a theory of personality structure by organizing
these words into traits trend in personality psychology, attempting to
identify and measure key personality traits
- Personality scales – it’s very easy for people to be convinced that a
personality profile describes them well (even if the profile is patently false
and not generated to describe them at all) “Barnum effect”
- Factor analysis - used to group items that people respond to similarity
Ways of describing personality
1. Different people will have deep personality differences b/c of relative
strengths of id, ego and superego
2. How we act to anxiety; anxiety = result of tension btw the 3 forces
- When system is out of balance, we experience deprivation of one system
as a kind of basic anxiety drives -ve thoughts + feelings that signals that
something isn’t “right”
- Anxiety can be huge and overwhelming in the moment or can be kind a
small threat that one has to pay attention to and deal with
Is Freud dead?
Medical
assault
Evidence of biological determinants
AMA abandons psychoanalysis for
pharmacology
Economic
assault
Insurers abandon it for cheaper treatments
Legal
assault
Indefensible claims of repressed sexual
abuse; defenders abandon psychoanalysis
for scientific evidence
Scientific
assault
Flaws in Freud’s scientific method
Unfalsifiability
Developed theories that are hard to
prove or disapprove
Unrepresentative
sampling
Didn’t build theories on broad
sample of observations; humanity is
based people w/ unusual
psychological problems
Biased
observation
Based theories on his
patients
Post facto
explanations
(hindsight bias)
Whether or not a situation makes
you anxious or not, you could be
either fixated or repressed
Persistence of Freud
- Good literature – conflict, sex and aggression
- Common discourse – Freudian jargon and metaphor are
ingrained in public mind and communication
In defense
- Brough attention to childhood + parenting – “sapling” to
“caterpillars”
- Changed view of mental disorders – from “freaks” to
“patients” (back then, mentally ill label was worst than
being a criminal)
- Initiated greater sexual liberation – especially for women in
Victorian Age
- Changed a language
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Shyness
State – specific conditions (environment)
Trait – disposition across time and state (person)
State x trait – interaction
State
shyness
Vast majority, shy in certain situations only
Minimal -ve consequences, even +ve elicit empathy
Trait
shyness
15
-
25% of population
Pervasive shyness across situations and time
Severe consequences:
- Avoid social events, meeting new people
- Make others uncomfortable
- Inhibits communication + assertiveness – doesn’t pay
attention to others, absorbed in one’s terror
- Excessive self-consciousness
- Prone to low self-esteem, loneliness, stress, depression
5 factors model
Low
High
Openness
Practical, routine,
conforming, unreflective,
crude, boorish
Imaginative, variety,
independent, intellectual,
polished, refined
Conscientiousness
Disorganized, careless,
impulsive, undependable,
unscrupulous, quitting
Organized,
careful,
disciplined, responsible,
scrupulous, persevering
Agreeableness
Suspicious, ruthless,
uncooperative, irritable,
jealous, headstrong
Trusting, empathic,
helpful, good-natured,
non-jealous, mild, gentle
Emotion stability
(neuroticism)
Anxious, insecure, self
-
pitying, nervous, excitable
Cal
m, secure, self
-
satisfied,
poised, composed
Extraversion
Introvert
ed
silent,
secretive, cautious,
reclusive, sober, reserved
E
xtrovert
ed
talkative,
frank + open, adventurous,
fun-loving, affectionate
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
Introduction – models of abnormality
Medical
Physiological abnormality
Psychodynamic
Unresolved intrapsychic conflict
Humanistic
Inability to fulfill needs and capabilities
Cognitive
Faulty thinking or beliefs about
self
&
world
Behavioural
Maladaptive responding due to faulty learning;
not symptomatic of underlying pathology
Sociocultural
Dysfunctional environments
DSM – biased to medical views, promotes labelling, puts practitioner in power
ineffective in treatment
- Diagnosis, etiology (causes), prognosis (predictions), stats, treatment
Goals of therapy – cure disorder (primary), alleviate symptoms/suffering,
shorten duration of episode, prevent future episodes
- Stigma + legal issues unable to say that they are entirely cured, in
remission (ok now, may not later)
Behavioural, cognitive and group therapy
- Address problematic behaviours & environmental factors that trigger them
- Conditioning/learning that lead to automatization of maladaptive habits
Systematic desensitization
-
g
radual exposure to feared stimulus
Virtual reality therapies - overcome key barriers to effectiveness
Aversive conditioning
replace +ve response w/
-
ve response
Cognitive
-
behavioural therapies
-
cognitive
restructuring, stress
inoculation training & exposure to experiences one may tend to avoid
- avoidance reinforces; exposure gain insight, learn to cope
- behavioural end – guidance in gaining skills they may be lacking
- cognitive end – strategies to build more functional cognitive habits;
cognitive restructuring learning to challenge -ve thoughts, self-
defeating beliefs & view situations in a different light
Mindfulness
-
based cognitive therapy
-
involves combining min
dfulness,
meditation w/ standard CBT tools
- CBT – “fixing oneself”, awareness for control, replace -ve w/ +ve
- Mindfulness – “accepting” thoughts and feelings w/o reacting
- COAL – curious, open, accepting and loving; parent’s attitude to help
children develop emotional security
- Intrapersonal attunement – relationship btw oneself and oneself;
Decentring – observe oneself more objectively as an observer
- Detach from damaging or troubling consequences of own thoughts
Group and family therapies
- Group – bonding & support among members w/ similar issues
- Family – resolve unhealthy dynamics within family
Views
Psychodynamic
Personality as a conflict,
shyness as a symptom
Behavioural
Personality = response tendencies, shyness = faulty learning
- Result of punishment/reward (law of effect), contingencies
- Doesn’t care about person’s thoughts; treats the personality
Social cognitive
Personality =
self
-
efficacy, shyness = low perceived self
-
efficacy
Trait – don’t have the skill
State- no confidence
Echoing – good social strategy
Humanistic
Personality = growth, shyness = social strategy
Discrepancy btw ideal and reality; treatment
ideal,
reality
Trait
Personality = trait hierarchy, shyness = predictive
- Some are more prone to depression
Trait theories – we consist of collection of traits
- Traits provide predictable behavioural tendencies or dispositions
Personality of Evil
key type: authoritarian
Honesty-Humility – high (honest), low (selfish, greedy)
Dark triad
Machiavellianism
Tendency to use people and to be manipulative and deceitful
Psychopath
y
General tendency of having shallow emotional responses
- Veer towards highly stimulating activities and tend to feel
little empathy for others (little remorse)
Narcissism
Egotistical preoccupation w/ self
-
image & excessive focus on
self-importance (“full of himself”)
Right-wring authoritarianism – highly problematic set of personality characteristics
1. Obeying orders & deferring to established authorities
2. Supporting aggression against those who differ from established social order
3. Believing strongly in maintaining existing social order
- Centre – strong tendency to think in dogmatic terms, where everything is either
black or white, nothing in between
- Likely to advocate a harsh stance – social rejection, aggression, arrest, detention –
toward people who deviate from established social order
- Problematic roles as citizens more likely to agree w/ unethical decisions, have
+ve attitudes toward corrupt gov and violation of civil liberties by state
Insight therapies
- Effectiveness depend on condition being treated, skill of therapist
Psychodynamic therapies (Freud
-
based)
Emphasize need to discover & resolve unconscious thoughts
1. Free association – talk or write w/o censoring
2. Dream analysis – examine manifest content insight of latent content
- Symbolic truths are hidden within loose storylines
3. Resistance – brings up unconscious material that one wishes to avoid, engages in
strategies for keep out of conscious awareness
- Reveals unconscious motives aware of how & what they are resisting
4. Transference – direct emotional experience toward therapist
Modern psychodynamic therapies
- Focused on conscious, acknowledge cultural & interpersonal influences
Object relations therapy – focus on how early childhood experiences & emotional
attachments influence later psychological functioning
- Focused on objects (mental representations of themselves & others)
- An adult will form and maintain relationships based on representations of
childhood relationships
Harry Stack Sullivan - Interpersonal therapy – therapists assume role of participant
observer, which they interact w/ and observe client over time in order to understand
any unrealistic expectations client may have toward relationships
- Focusing on improving social skills, resolve interpersonal issues & life transitions
- Effectively to treat depression, substance abuse and eating disorders
Humanistic
existential psychotherapy
- Emphasize individual strength and potential for growth
- Focus on removing obstacles that prevent self-actualization from unfolding
- Emphasize importance of facing painful experiences to achieve self-actualization
Phenomenological approach – address feelings & thoughts in the present
Client-centred therapy (Carl Rogers) – focus on individual’s abilities to solve their own
problems and reach their full potential w/ encouragement of therapist
- Rogers believed that all individuals could develop and reach their full potential
- Conditions of worth judge or lose affection for a person who doesn’t live up to
expectations
o insecurities likely to change behaviour to regain affection behaviour
becomes primarily about gaining affection & approval, living in order to please
others instead of express oneself (key aspect of psychological dysfunction)
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