PSYCH101 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Anxiety, Sigmund Freud, Memory

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20 Nov 2018
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Unipolar Depression
Introduction to Psychopathology
Models of Abnormality
1. Medical: Behaviour is symptomatic of physiological abnormality
a. Prescription drug treatment
2. Psychodynamic: Behaviour is symptomatic of unresolved intrapsychic conflicts
a. Repression emotional experiences in past become repressed in our mind
3. Humanistic: Behaviour is symptomatic of inability to fulfill human needs and capabilities
a. Ideal vs. real self
4. Cognitive: Behaviour is symptomatic of faulty thinking or beliefs about self and the world
a. CBT
5. Behavioural: Behaviour is maladaptive responding due to faulty learning; not symptomatic of
underlying pathology
a. Fear of cats
6. Sociocultural: Behaviour is symptomatic of dysfunctional environments such as family, society,
or culture
a. Take person out of life and treat as single entity
Classifying Psychological Disorders with the DSM
Reliable method of diagnosis
Criteria for diagnosis
Etiology (causes)
Prognosis (predictions)
Statistics (e.g., prevalence, risk factors)
Guide treatment choices
Biased to medical model
Promotes labelling
Some Major DSM Classifications
Goals of Therapy
Cure disorder
Alleviate symptoms/suffering
Shorten duration of episode
Prevent future episodes
Unipolar Depression
Criteria of Major Depressive Disorder
At least 5 of the following: one or both of the first two, PLUS three of more of the rest. Must be present
for at least 2 weeks
Depressed mood most of the day, and/or
Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities
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Significant increase or decrease in appetite or weight
Insomnia, sleeping too much, or disrupted sleep
Lethargy, or physical agitation
Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day
Worthlessness, or excessive/inappropriate guilt (deciding factor between depression and
bereavement)
Daily problems, in thinking, concentrating, and/or making decisions
Recurring thoughts of death and suicide
Depression
Emotional symptoms
o Sadness
o Hopelessness
o Anxiety
o Misery
o Inability to enjoy
Cognitive symptoms
o Negative cognitions about self, world, and future
Motivational symptoms
o Loss of interest
o Lack of desire
o Difficulty starting anything
Somatic symptoms
o Loss of appetite
o Lack of energy
o Sleep difficulties
o Weight loss/gain
The “Common Cold” of Psychological Disorders
Depression appears worldwide and across all social strata
Per year, depressive episodes happen to about 6 percent of men and about 9 percent of women
o Likely underreported
Over the course of a lifetime, 12 percent of Canadians and 17 percent of Americans experience
depression
Depression Patterns
50% depression will recur: about half will have a future episode after the other
40% will never recur after recovery
10% no recovery, chronic depression never get back to premorbid state
Medical Model
Mental “illness
4 possible causes:
1) Infection CAN’T CATCH
2) Genetics
3) Neurostructural prefrontal ventricles, something wrong with hardware
4) Neurochemical something wrong with software, neurotransmitters
Biology od Depression: Genetics
Evidence of genetic influence on depression:
1) DNA linkage analysis reveals depressed gene regions
2) Twin/adoption heritability studies
The
Cognitive
Triad
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