PSYCH101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Therapy, Cognitive Psychology

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26 Mar 2019
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PSYCH 101 Final Exam
Week 1 - Introduction, History and Research Methods
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
What is Psychology?
o 5 courses
Behavioural Neuroscience
Developmental Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Social Psychology
o Think of psychology more as therapy
What Psychology isn’t…
o Not psychoanalysis (not done in clinical psychology anymore)
o Not common sense
We’ve been told that opposites attract but also that those who are similar
like each other
Common sense can’t help because of these opposing ideas
o Not about the torture of animals
Since the 1960s, big importance on preforming ethical experiments
Some animals are still sacrificed for psychological research, but
these are deemed ethical now most research done on the brain is
done on humans
Psychology is hard to define, because psychology is about people and what makes them
up
A way to think about Psychology
o Has to do with what people think about and how they feel about things
Emotions ≠ Thoughts emotions are not always captured by our
thoughts
o It’s also about behaviour and how we act
o *It is very common for our thoughts, feeling, and emotions to not go together in
our everyday experiences
3 BEGINNINGS OF PSYCHOLOGY
1. Psychiatric Tradition
a. Freud made an important contribution to the beginnings
i. Started psychoanalysis
ii. Didn’t write his first work until 1898 (The Interpretation of Dreams)
b. Represented more in medicine nowadays than in psychology
i. Psychiatrists don’t have much training is psychology
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2. Testing Tradition
a. Heavy influence of intelligence testing
b. Developed in England
c. Sir Francis Galton was a key player
i. Started his work in the 1870s
ii. Somewhat represented particularly in the evolutionary side of psychology
1. Narrowest of the 3 traditions
3. Academic Approach (Lab Psych)
a. Wilhelm Wundt known for his failure
i. Set up the first psych lab; he wanted to have a clearly scientific approach
1. He believed that thought could be split up into mental atoms
(chemistry)
b. 3 reactions to Wundt
i. William James
1. Wundt’s student
2. Brought Psychology to North America
ii. John B. Watson
1. One of the early proponents of Behaviourism
iii. Gestalt psychologists in Europe
THE PSYCHIATRIC TRADITION
The Major Theorists of the Psychiatric Condition
o Sigmund Freud
Dominated psychiatric tradition
2 primary motives that drive people
Sex + Aggression
Much of these drives are unconscious
Huge inner mental life (complex + devious)
Oedipus Complex
Freud believed that this influenced much of adult development and
was the central problem to the human psyche
Children boys want to have sex with their mothers, but live
through their father’s sex life with the mother once they realize
they can’t do it does not help to explain how women developed
o Carl Jung
Incredibly brilliant; more important for literature than psychology
(Steppenwolf)
ex. Collective unconscious and opposing psyches
Theories aren’t taken too seriously in psychology
o Carl Adler
Had totally different ideas from Freud
Believed that people wanted to be powerful/in control… not driven
by sex and aggression
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Some of his theories echo in modern psychology with the aspect of
Self-Esteem
o Ego Psychologists
Followed in Freudian tradition and have made an important impact on
modern psych
Erik Erickson Social Development Model
Karen Horney + Henry Stack Sullivan Importance of
relationships in developing the self-concept (social psychology)
Major Assumptions of the Psychiatric Tradition
o Cannot rely on what people say or do to understand what kind of problems they
are facing as everything is believed to be unconscious
The emphasis in on the interpretation of what is said
o Emphasis on understanding each person comprehensively
Studying one person at a time and knowing all the details about that
person (as the dynamic whole)
Dome through therapy over several years
o The best approach is a clinical approach
More is learned by studying people who are sick tells us more what is
going on and hidden beneath the psyche
THE TESTING TRADITION
The Major Theorists of the Testing Tradition
o Sir Francis Galton (Darwin’s Cousin)
Naïve idea on how to study what makes people more fit and likely to
survive
Wanted to figure out what makes someone a genius; what makes
them superior
Assumed that those who would be the smartest were also those
who were more physically capable
o First measure of intelligence was through physical tests
Very intelligent mathematician; developed new statistical techniques
o Spearman
Along with Galton, developed new statistical techniques
Factor analysis way of figuring out what goes together
o Cattel + Eysenek
Trait Tradition
From very different POV came up with similar models that
make up a person
2 major components to personality
o Introversion vs. Extroversion
o Neuroticism (Worried vs. Mellow)
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