PSYCH101 Study Guide - Behaviorism, Acetylcholine, Thalamus

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14 Mar 2014
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01 - The Basic Model of Psychology
- The basic model of psychology is Person -> Behavior -> Outcome (how do
these 3 things interact?)
oPerson
Are the different kinds of variables within people that affect
various situations?
oBehavior
What are people doing?
oOutcome
What are the outcomes of the actions of the people?
- An abbreviation of this is P x E (person interacting with environment) – how
does the environment affect me?
01 – The ABC’s of Psychology
- This is a tri-partite model for studying psychological phenomena
oAffect – feelings, emotions, moods, temperament
oBehaviorthe actions of people
oCognitive – information processing (i.e. decision-making, thinking,
memories, etc.)
01 – Basic Perspectives in Psychology
- There are many different ways to look at our basic model
- Some conflict with each other, and some complement each other
- Perspectives:
oPsychodynamic approach
oBehavioral approach
oCognitive approach
oBiological approach
oSocio-cultural approach
01 – Psychodynamic Approach
- Psychology is most seen as having this approach (i.e. the couch)
- Most synonymous with Sigmund Freud
- Focuses on the “person” aspect of the basic psych. Model
- States that much of our behavior is caused by our internal, psychic world
oOur personality
oOur subconscious
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01 – Behavioral Approach
- This is in direct conflict with the psychodynamic approach!
- Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner, and John Watson were behaviorists
- The real action in the basic model isn’t taking place within the individual –
it’s within the environment
- And so our behavior is merely automatic responses to stimuli in our
environment
- This used to be the widely accepted approach in academia
01 – Cognitive Approach // Socio-Cultural Approach
- Cognitive approach
oThis is a happy medium between the psychodynamic and
behavioral approaches
oWe process information about our environments and then
consciously make decisions based on it
- Socio-cultural approach
oThis complements other perspectives
oIt is a marriage between sociology and psychology
oIt is like a macro view of psychology – it studies what groups of
people (as opposed to single people) do in various situations
01 – Biological Approach
- A newer perspective than the others
- A marriage between psychology and biology
- Looks at the “hardware” of the mind – the neurons, chemical processes,
etc. which affect our behavior
- Looks at the effect of genetics on behavior
01 – The Science of Psychology
- Science is just the refinement of everyday thinking – all our ideas originate
from everyday hypotheses about things
- Here we focus on the ways we go about conducting our research
oBegin with “naïve” or “implicit” theories
oUnderstand, explain, predict, and control a phenomenon
Sometimes we refine our theory here
- 3 requirements for refining data:
oResearch must be empirical
oWe have to be able to replicate the tests
oFalsifiability – there has to be a way to try and prove the theory
wrong
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01 – Developmental Psychology – Background
- During the Industrial Revolution around 1900, children were made to labor
in coal mines from a very young age
- This has changed partially because of a change in how children are viewed
- There are 3 major theories on psychology, and they each correspond to one
letter of the ABC’s
01 – Attachment Theory (Affective development)
- It was noticed that a child bonded to its mother shortly after birth
- 2 major theories attempted to explain this:
oPsychodynamic perspective
Sigmund Freud suggested that we show attachment to the
person who can satisfy us sexually
And when we are young, we need oral sexual gratification
(i.e. sucking on the mother’s breast)
oBehaviorism
The attachment is due to “association” or “conditioning” –
we become attached to the one who cares for us and helps
us survive
01 – Harry Harlow’s Studies 01
- Harlow separated monkeys from their mothers when they were born and
raised them himself in their own cages
- He noticed that they would become very attached to cotton diapers
- He theorized that the monkeys became attached to this because it was the
only thing they had, since their mother was gone
- This meant that the behavioral and psychodynamic theories were untrue
because the diaper was not providing care or sexual gratification
- So it was concluded that attachment isn’t a secondary need (that results
from other things), it’s a primary need!
01 – Harry Harlow’s Studies 02
- So Harry said that we are pre-wired to want love! It is a biological need!
- He did an experiment to compare his theory with the other ones:
oHe took 2 monkey and gave them “mothers” – one of cloth, and one
of just wire mesh
oThe wire one provided milk but the cotton one, nothing
oThe other theories said that the monkey would be attached to the
one which can provide for it
oBut the OPPOSITE occurred!
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