Psych 101 Exam Review.docx

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9 Oct 2014
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Psych 101 Exam Review- Lecture Notes
Memory:
- Encoding Encoding verbal information
oStructural encoding focuses on what words look like. For instance, one might
note whether words are long or short, in uppercase or lowercase, or handwritten
or typed.
oPhonemic encoding focuses on how words sound.
oSemantic encoding focuses on the meaning of words. Semantic encoding
requires a deeper level of processing than structural or phonemic encoding and
usually results in better memory.
- Storage  How information is stored/ maintained. Information is stored in three different
systems: Sensory memory, Short- term memory, and Long- term memory.
- Retrieval  Process of retrieving information from memory
-Sensory Memory
oTemporary storage of sensory information
oCapacity: High
oDuration: Less than 1 second (vision) or a few seconds (hearing)
-Short- term Memory
oBrief storage of information currently being used
oCapacity- Limited
oDuration: Less than 20 seconds
-Long- term Memory
oRelatively permanent storage of information
oCapacity- Unlimited (?)
oDuration: Long or Permanent (?)
-Forgetting
oCan occur at any memory stage, however amount of forgetting depends on
what memory stage it is
oAs we process info, we filter, alter, and lose much of it
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Intelligence:
- Intelligence tests: tests that are composed in order to test people’s mental abiltiies
-Intelligence is defined as “whatever intelligence tests measure”
-Intelligence according to Galton
oBiological definition- powerful and efficient brain and nervous system
oDetermined by heredity
-According to Binet
o“The tendency to take and maintain a definite direction; the capacity to make
adaptations for the purpose of attaining a desired end; and the power of auto-
criticism.”
oNot fixed but grows naturally with experience
oVarious capabilities: memory, attention, reasoning
oTied together by “good judgment” or “good sense”
-Binet- Environment affects Intelligence
-Galton- Biological factors affect Intelligence
-Spearman’s two factor theory
o“g factor”  general intelligence, biological, inherited (Galton)
o“s factor”  specific intelligence, environmental, learned (Binet)
- Numerical, Verbal, Spatial, and Mechanical abilities are “specific”
-The Intelligence Quotient: Mental Age/ Chronological Age x 100
-Terman’s Abuse of I.Q. Testing:
oBelieves that children of Spanish- Indian and Mexican descent (lower I.Q.
scores) should be segregated in to separate classes
oBelieved that all children of this descent were not intelligent
o***Conclusions were based on a pair of Mexican and a Pair of Native children in
Arizona***
-If I.Q. Test scores are not great:
oBinet  Study, develop self- discipline and attention span
oLewis Terman  Remove your genes from the population
-Intelligence according to Wechsler
o“the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think
rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment”
o“the capacity of an individual to understand the world about him and his
resourcefulness to cope with its challenges”
oIntelligent behavior consists of:
Awareness: Understanding and knowing what you’re doing, and why
Meaningful: Intentional behavior that is said to have significance and
relevance
Rational: Logically deduced and consistent
Worthwhile: Consensus deems the behavior to be valued and useful; in
accord with acceptable norms of merit and importance
-Modern uses for I.Q. Testing:
oEstimate of general intelligence
oIdentify specific assets and liabilities
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oPsychological diagnosis
Motivation:
-Characteristics:
oAn inferred construct
oPresumed to be an intervening variable essential for performance
- Intensity
oEnergy, enthusiasm, degree of effort exerted
- Direction / Choices
oSelection of outcomes worthy of effort
oDegree of task difficulty selected
- Persistence
oCommitment to choices
- Everyone has different levels of motivation
- There is an autonomic process causing behavior- therefore behavior is automatic
- A drive is an aroused/tense state related to a physical need such as hunger or thirst.
-Drive-reduction theory refers to the idea that humans are motivated to reduce these
drives, such as eating to reduce the feeling of hunger.
-Ultimate motivation: zero arousal state- state alleviating aggression etc.
-Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
oHumans strive to ensure that basic needs are satisfied before they find
motivation to pursue goals that are higher on the hierarchy
-Rogers’ discrepancy theory:
oDiscrepancy theory: we are always holding up a model of ourselves and looking
at our self- understanding, we hold this mirror up to the idea of who we actually
are à if there is great discrepancy between the two it is an undesirable state
oNow either motivated to bring the two selves together and make them congruent
à become who we think we can be
oIf it is too dramaticà perception changes to “I am a failure” demotivation
(depression etc)
-The Expectancy- Value approach:
oMotivation is the outcome of the expectations and the incentive value of the
outcome
oMotivation = Expectancy x Value
-Bandura’s Self- Efficacy Theory:
oBased on two beliefs- Belief that you possess the skills, experience, strategy,
equipment etc to perform
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