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Final

PSYCH101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Bulimia Nervosa, Sensory Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Study Guide
Final

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PSYCHOLOGY 101 TEXTBOOK
CONCEPTS REVIEW SHEET
PREPARATION FOR FINAL EXAM
MEMORY
MODULE 26:INTRODUCTION TO MEMORY
Memory – the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Encoding – the processing of information into the memory system – for example, by extracting meaning.
Storage – the retention of encoded information over time.
Retrieval – the process of getting information out of memory storage.
Sensory memory – the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Short-term memory – activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a
phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long-term memory – the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes
knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Working memory – a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active
processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information.
MODULE 27: ENCODING: GETTING INFORMATION IN
Automatic processing – unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and
frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Effortful processing – encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Rehearsal – the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it
for storage.
Spacing effect – the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is
achieved through massed study or practice.

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Sensory input
Encoding
Encoding
Retrieving
Unconscious Processing
Serial position effect – our tendency to recall best the last and first items on a list
Visual encoding – the encoding of picture images.
Acoustic encoding – the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Semantic encoding – the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
Imagery – mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with
semantic encoding.
Mnemonics – memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational
devices.
Chunking – organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

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MODULE 28: STORAGE: RETAINING INFORMATION
Iconic memory – a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image
memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
Echoic memory – a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds
and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Long-term potentiation (LTP) – an increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Flashbulb memory – a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Amnesia – the loss of memory.
Implicit memory – retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory).
Explicit memory – memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously “declare.” (Also called
declarative memory).
Hippocampus – a neural center that is ocated in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for
storage.
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