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PSYCH101 Study Guide - Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Dissociative Identity Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
n.a

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Week 8-Clinical Psychology I
a. Clinical Psychology I: Psychological Disorders
5 different classes of disorders
Anxiety-Phobia
Mood-Depression, Bipolar
Psychotic-schizophrenia
Dissociate disorders, multiple personalities/Dissociative Identity
Personality disorders anitsocial.sociopath
b. Anxiety Disorders
Phobias
o Irrational fear
o Fairly common condition
o Phobias are quite treatable
Generalized Anxiety Disorder-Panic Disorder
o Overwhelming sense of anxiety
o Not localized as being caused by any particular thing
o Can become quite debilitating
o Associated with panic attacks
Hearts going to stop
Sweaty
Cant breath
Cant do anything else while experiencing one
o Agoraphobia
Fear of open places, of being out in the world
Fear of having panic attack, while outside of their home
Cases where individuals have not left homes for 20 years
o Obsessive compulsive disorder
Can vary from mildly obsessive to extremely obsessive and completely
debilitating
Two things that characterize obsessive compulsive disorder
Repetitive thoughts
Repetitive behaviors
Psychoanalytic perspective
o Need therapy to solve some deep lying problem which is causing the disorder
o Little hans
Scared of horses
Has anxiety arising from Oedipus complex which was being transferred onto
horses
Terrified that his father will castrate him due to sexual desire for his mother
Learning Perspective
o Things people develop anxieties like little albert
o We gain anxiety by associating whatever the stimuli is with something that is
aversive
o It can generalize from one thing to another
o Treatment would be to uncondition it-Virtual Reality training
o OCD-reward people for not doing compulsion
Social cognitive perspective
o Observational learning
o Develop certain phobias by watching others and observing what they are afraid of
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o This would suggest that you could use models who are doing non-fearful behavior to
try to overcome the fear
Biological Perspective
o OCD can be treated with drugs
o Inborn biological fear for certain things that would make sense for us to be afraid of
c. Mood Disorders
Major affective disorder/unipolar depression
o Profoundly depressed and lasting for over 6 months
o Can interfere dramatically with an individuals life
o Poor appetite
o Insomnia
o Feelings of worthlessness
o Loss of interest
o Sleeping 14-15 hours day
o Gain weight due to lack of activity
o Depression is persistent, clear thoughts of suicide
Bipolar depression
o Extreme highs and lows
o Low side is Major affective disorder or unipolar depression
o High side is euphoric, grandiose, think they can do anything
o Negative side to this high is that they can become easily agitated, and possibly
violent
o Often are reckless in behavior believing that nothing will happen to them
o Can waste huge amount of money
o Number of famous people who have been manic depressives (bipolar)
o Pressured speech
Can’t decipher what they are saying
Speech is coming so rapidly that the words are not even fully formed
Individuals with pressured speech typically have super high energy
Major symptom is they haven’t slept for weeks
o How quickly do the moods change
Rapid cycling-moods can change within house and within days
More common is change in 3 month cycles and sometimes years as well
Seems to vary within the individual and between individuals as well
o Gender difference in depression
Women suffer from depression far more than men
Explanation of mood disorders
o Psychoanalytic perspective
Depression is anger turned inward
Part of therapy is to get anger expressed at the appropriate target
o Biological perspective
Strong genetic influences-both unipolar and bipolar disorders run in the
same family
With certain brain neurotransmitters there seems to be depletion in
depressed individuals-in particular noradrenalin and serotonin
Drugs that elevate the levels of noradrenalin and serotonin are effective anti
depressants.
Do the highs and lows balance out? No
The problem may be in the way in which neurotransmitters are regulated in
the synapse.
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