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PSYCH101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Observational Learning, Contiguity, Henri Tajfel

Course Code
Richard Ennis
Study Guide

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01 - The Basic Model of Psychology
- The basic model of psychology is Person -> Behavior ->
Outcome (how do these 3 things interact?)
Are the different kinds of variables within people
that affect various situations?
What are people doing?
What are the outcomes of the actions of the
- An abbreviation of this is P x E (person interacting with
environment) – how does the environment affect me?
01 – The ABC’s of Psychology
- This is a tri-partite model for studying psychological
oAffect – feelings, emotions, moods, temperament
oBehaviorthe actions of people
oCognitive – information processing (i.e. decision-
making, thinking, memories, etc.)
01 – Basic Perspectives in Psychology
- There are many different ways to look at our basic model
- Some conflict with each other, and some complement each
- Perspectives:
oPsychodynamic approach
oBehavioral approach
oCognitive approach
oBiological approach
oSocio-cultural approach
01 – Psychodynamic Approach
- Psychology is most seen as having this approach (i.e. the
- Most synonymous with Sigmund Freud
- Focuses on the “person” aspect of the basic psych. Model
- States that much of our behavior is caused by our internal,
psychic world
oOur personality
oOur subconscious
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01 – Behavioral Approach
- This is in direct conflict with the psychodynamic approach!
- Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner, and John Watson were
- The real action in the basic model isn’t taking place within the
individual – it’s within the environment
- And so our behavior is merely automatic responses to stimuli
in our environment
- This used to be the widely accepted approach in academia
01 – Cognitive Approach // Socio-Cultural Approach
- Cognitive approach
oThis is a happy medium between the psychodynamic
and behavioral approaches
oWe process information about our environments and
then consciously make decisions based on it
- Socio-cultural approach
oThis complements other perspectives
oIt is a marriage between sociology and psychology
oIt is like a macro view of psychology – it studies what
groups of people (as opposed to single people) do in
various situations
01 – Biological Approach
- A newer perspective than the others
- A marriage between psychology and biology
- Looks at the “hardware” of the mind – the neurons, chemical
processes, etc. which affect our behavior
- Looks at the effect of genetics on behavior
01 – The Science of Psychology
- Science is just the refinement of everyday thinking – all our
ideas originate from everyday hypotheses about things
- Here we focus on the ways we go about conducting our
oBegin with “naïve” or “implicit” theories
oUnderstand, explain, predict, and control a
Sometimes we refine our theory here
- 3 requirements for refining data:
oResearch must be empirical
oWe have to be able to replicate the tests
oFalsifiability – there has to be a way to try and prove
the theory wrong
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01 – Developmental Psychology – Background
- During the Industrial Revolution around 1900, children were
made to labor in coal mines from a very young age
- This has changed partially because of a change in how
children are viewed
- There are 3 major theories on psychology, and they each
correspond to one letter of the ABC’s
01 – Attachment Theory (Affective development)
- It was noticed that a child bonded to its mother shortly after
- 2 major theories attempted to explain this:
oPsychodynamic perspective
Sigmund Freud suggested that we show
attachment to the person who can satisfy us
And when we are young, we need oral sexual
gratification (i.e. sucking on the mother’s breast)
The attachment is due to “association” or
“conditioning” – we become attached to the one
who cares for us and helps us survive
01 – Harry Harlow’s Studies 01
- Harlow separated monkeys from their mothers when they
were born and raised them himself in their own cages
- He noticed that they would become very attached to cotton
- He theorized that the monkeys became attached to this
because it was the only thing they had, since their mother was
- This meant that the behavioral and psychodynamic theories
were untrue because the diaper was not providing care or
sexual gratification
- So it was concluded that attachment isn’t a secondary need
(that results from other things), it’s a primary need!
01 – Harry Harlow’s Studies 02
- So Harry said that we are pre-wired to want love! It is a
biological need!
- He did an experiment to compare his theory with the other
oHe took 2 monkey and gave them “mothers” – one of
cloth, and one of just wire mesh
oThe wire one provided milk but the cotton one, nothing
oThe other theories said that the monkey would be
attached to the one which can provide for it
oBut the OPPOSITE occurred!
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