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Final

Exam Review Text book notes for exam review: Chapter 7,8,9


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH207
Professor
Jonathan Fugelsang
Study Guide
Final

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Allen/Brooks, 1991:
Conducted a clever experiment that demonstrated how specific prior examples influence categorization over
and above the use of simple defining features.
Experiment that demonstrated how prior example, influences categorization over use of simple defining feature
Experiment to demonstrate how specific prior examples influence categorization over and above the use of
simple defining features
Builders creatures lived in shelters built from materials available in their environment
Looked at the degree to which item categorization of specific creatures influenced from training
Diggers: live in holes they dug
Builder: long legs, angular body, spots
Found that similarity to previous exemplars stored in memory influenced the categorization despite participants
having a simple and sufficient categorization rule to follow
People have previously stores exemplers which influene categorization even though they have simple rules to
follow ignore those rules and are influenced by the previously store exemplars.
Allan Pavio, 1969: DUAL CODING HYPOTHESIS:
2 distinct coding systems for representing information to be stored:
1. VERBAL: information about items abstract, linguistic meaning.
2. IMAGERY: mental pictures of some sort that represent what the item looks like.
Assumed that visual imagery, unlike verbal labelling, increases as a function of concreteness: The more concrete
the noun, the richer the image and the more elaborated the internal code (Analogue debate), which is why
pictures are remembered better than words.
When items are coded by bith images and verbal labels, the chances of the learners retrieving them are
obviously better.
If verbal labelling is forgotten, can still remember visual image, vice versa.
Armstrong/Glietman, 1983:
Demonstrated additional problems with typicality ratings
Barsalou:
People theories or mental explanations about the world are intertwined with their concepts and provide the
basis for categorization:
Barsalou, 1985, 87/Roth and Shober, 83:
Showed typicality of an instance depends to some extent on context.
Benjamin Whorf:
The language or languages one grows up learning and speaking this determine the way one perceives the world,
organizes information about the world and thinks.
Biederman/Gerharastein:
When people view 3D shapes, as a long as the distinctive geons of the objects remain visible people can
recognize objects without mental rotation.
Bower, 1970: RELATIONAL ORGANIZATION HYPOTHESIS:
Alternative to dual coding hypothesis
Imagery improved memory not because images are necessarily richer than verbal labels, but because imagery
produces more associations between the items to be recalled.

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Facilitates greater number of hooks between the 2 to be remembered prieces of information
NOT IMAGERY that helps memory, but how imager is USED: Need to use INTERACTIVE IMAGERY in order to
improve imagery.
Experiement on:
1. Role memorization 2. Non interactive imagery 3. Interactive imagery
o and only interactive imagery improved memory by the highest amount because:
o interactive images create more links between target and information and other information, making
target easier to remember.
For images to be maximally effective in paired associated, participants should try to form images that interact
with each other.
Bransford/Johnson:
with the context provided before the passage, participants recalled an average of 8.0 out of 14.0 distinct ideas
Bruner/Goodnow/Austin:
acquiring info.
Retaining info.
Transforming info.
How people perform task.
Cooper, 1976:
Rotating images through intermediate angles of orientation
Imaginal scanning: participants first form a visual image, then scan it, moving from one location to another
The time people take to scan reveals something about the ways images represent spatial properties (location,
distance)
Cooper/Shepard:
Participants also mentally rotated more recognizable stimuli
Cooper, Lynn:
Are parts mentally rotating whole stimulus, or just looking at certain points?
Chambers/Reisberg, 1972: BUNNY experiment
Chomsky, 1965:
Phrase structure rules:
Functions to generate the structures depicted in tree diagram a.k.a. rewrite rules describe ways in which certain
symbols can be rewritten as other symbols.
Eleanor Rosch and Colleagues, 1973:
found errors in to the Classical view people judged different members of a category as varying in ‘goodness’
created the prototype view
Eleanor Rosch and Marvis, 1975:
presented participants with terms and asked them to list attributes “common to and characteristics
item such as chair/sofa ones that seem more prototypical of the super ordinate category ‘furniture’ – had
many of the furniture attributes listed than did items such as clock/phone
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Finkes principles of Visual Imagery: Describes the fundamental nature and properties of visual images:
1. Implicit Encoding
a. Images are places from which information can be obtained, even if the information is not intentionally
stored.
b. You can use imagery to answer questions you aren’t directly know the answer to.
c. Information get implicitly encoded meaning is was stored unintentionally, along with other
information, that allows you to construct a visual image.
2. Perceptual Equivalence
a. Similarities between construction of visual images and perception of real objects/events
b. Many of the same kinds of internal processes used in mental visualization, are used in perception as
well.
3. Spatial Equivalence
a. How spatial info. (location/distance/size) is represented in visual imager
b. Kosslyn, scanning the amount of time it takes people to from one element of a visual image to another,
corresponds to the distance between the elements in a physical representation
c. Nancy Kerr, 1983: the greater the distance between the object the longer it takes the both the blinded
and sighted participants to scan, therefore visual imagery has spatial properties.
4. Transformations Equivalence
a. Way images are mentally transformed
5. Structural Equivalence
a. Way that images are organized/assembled
b. Visual images are not formed all at once, but in pieces that assembled in a final rendition.
Garrett: Speech Error
1. Errors that showed meaning relations.
2. Errors that showed form relations.
Left to right sentence processing garden path sentences normal processing can sometimes fail, but rare.
Gerratt, 1988:
The relative infrequency of word substitution errors showing both meaning and form similarities indicates the
language production system processes information about meaning and information about form at diff.
George Miller, 1990:
2 fundamental problems in speech perception:
1. Speech is continuous.
2. A single phoneme sounds different depending on context.
Goodman:
Similarity is meaningful in certain respects.
Grice, 1975:
Argued that, for a conversation to take place, all the speakers must co operate with each other
Must do more than produce utterances that are phonologically, syntactically, semantically appropriate must
also follow the rule of pragmatics.
Describes speakers as having in a conversation as all following a general
‘co operative principle’
To do this, speakers must follow 4 specific conversation Maxims/rules:
1. Maxim of Quantity (Contribution as informative as required not too much or too little)
2. Maxim of Quality (contribution should be true)
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