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PSYCH253 Study Guide - Final Guide: Stereotype Threat, Negative Feedback, Positive Feedback

Course Code
Emiko Yoshida
Study Guide

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Chapter 12
Prejudice and Disliking Others
Economic Costs of Discrimination
Discrimination affects everyone, because it affects the economy
Economists estimated “a 50% increase in the gender wage-gap leads to a 25% drop in per capita
income” (economic growth) & “loss of $137.5 billion because of discrimination in the U.S.
US army spent $250 million in one year to deal with sexual harassment problems
Economic advantages:
Increase productivity
Expand market
Educational advantages of diversity:
Acquire different perspectives
Deeper/more effective information processing
Some Definitions
Prejudice negative prejudgment about a group and its individual members
Prejudice often leads to discrimination
Discrimination unjustifiable negative behaviour towards a group and its individual members
Prejudice and discrimination usually involves applying stereotypes
Stereotypes beliefs about the personal attributes of group of people; overgeneralized,
inaccurate and resistant to chagne
Clip The Office
Amount of explicit prejudicial attitudes still exist, but have decreased ever since 1960
Subtle Forms of Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice has become more subtle in past years
Ex. female musicians have been underrepresented in prestigious jobs (ex. symphony
orchestras); due to discrimination (when women audition behind a screen they are 50% more
likely to be hired than if no screen)
Overweight women are paid 7% less than normal weight women
Racial minorities and helping behaviour people are less likely to help black people compared
to white people if they can see the ethnicity of the person
Expression of Prejudice
Factors that affects expression fo prejudice
Values, ideologies, beliefs;
Ambiguity (presence of excuse)
o Study Snyder et al., 1979
o 2 screens showing a movie
o 2 vacants seats in between 2 confederates (one with a metal brace)
o 2 conditions
1. Screens play the same movie, if they avoid the confederate with metal
brace they are obviously avoiding him
2. Screens play different movies, if they avoid the confederate with metal
brace, Ps have an excuse; can say they want to watch the movie that the
“normal” confederate is watching

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Chapter 12
o Hypothesis: when there is an excuse, participants will be more likely to avoid
the confederate with a brace than when ther eis no excuse
o Results: same movie equally likely to sit beside either confederate (no excuse
no discrimination); different movie more likely to sit beside the confederate
with metal brace (excuse discrimination)
Target’s Perspectives
Attributional Ambiguity
How does subtle prejudice and discrimination affect a target?
Attribute negative events to prejudice protect self-esteem
Ex. crossing Canadian/American border situation is ambiguous (is this discrimination?)
Study Crocker et al., 1999
o 2 (visibility: blinds up vs. blinds down) x 2 (feedback: positive vs. negative) study
o Black participants
o Told that study is on same-sex friendship (process of making inter-racial
o Told that “another (White) participant” is in the next room
o Ps fill out a self-description form
o One way mirror Ps cannot see partner, but partner can see Ps (blinds up told
that the blinds would be raised vs. blinds down condition)
o Wasn’t really a partner
o Positive feedback condition partners say that they would like to take the same
course, work together, be roommates, etc.
o Negative feedback condition opposite of positive
o DV 1: attribution ex. “to what extent do you think that you are discriminated
against by the other student?”
o DV 2: self-esteem
o Results:
Positive feedback: visible (blinds up) lower self-esteem than invisible
(blinds down)
Negative feedback: invisible (blinds down) lower self-esteem, visible
(blinds up) no real difference to self-esteem
o When a “white partner” could see, Black Ps attributed negative feedback to
racism discounted both positive and negative feedback protected self-
esteem from negative feedback; did not increase self-esteem after receiving
positive feedback
Clip Seinfeld Jerry asks Chinese mailman where the nearest Chinese food restaurant
is, mailman gets very upset
o White professors provide feedback to Black students negative feedback will
be discounted (due to racism); potentially useful criticism will be dismissed
o How can a mentor provide feedback in a way to discourage attribution to racial
Over-praising and under-challenging is not effective; Black students are
sensitive to motivation underlying positive feedback (will usually
discount positive feedback as well)
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