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PSYCH257 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Dorothea Dix, Ego Psychology, Behaviour Therapy


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH257
Professor
Uzma Rehman
Study Guide
Midterm

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Definitions
January-05-11
10:45 AM
Psychological disorder
Psychological dysfunction within an individual associated with distress or
impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally
expected.
Phobia
Disorder characterized by persistent fear of an object or situation
Psychopathology
Scientific study of psychological disorders
Scientist-practitioner
Mental health professionals who take a scientific approach to their work
Presenting problem
The original complaint from the client to the therapist; why the person
came to the clinic
Clinical description
The combination of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that make up a
specific disorder.
Prevalence
How many people in the population have this disorder
Incidence
How many new cases occur during a given period
Course
Pattern of development and change of a disorder over time
Prognosis
Anticipated course of a disorder
Etiology
Study of origins
Psychosocial approach
Social and cultural factors as well as psychological influences
Moral therapy
19th century psychosocial approach to treatment, that involves treating
patients as normally as possible in normal environments
Mental hygiene
movement
19th century effort to improve care for mentally disordered by informing
public about their mistreatment. Put forward by Dorothea Dix
Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalytic assessment and therapy that emphasized insight and
exploration into unconscious processes and conflicts
Behaviourism
Explanation of human behaviour, including dysfunction, based on principles
of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology
Unconscious
Make of psychic makeup outside of conscious awareness
Catharsis
Therapeutic release of emotional tension
Psychoanalytic model
Comprehensive theory advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account
for development and structure of personality as well as origins of abnormal
behaviour, based on inner entities and forces
Id
Operates on the pleasure principle, controls basic sexual and aggressive

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urges.
Intrapsychic conflict
Struggles among id, ego and superego
Defence mechanism
Unconscious protective processes that keep primitive emotions associated
with conflict in check so the ego can continue to function
Psychosexual stages of
development
Sequence of phases a person passes through during development. Each
stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is
maximal at that time
Neuroses
Obsolete psychodynamic term used for psychological disorders thought to
result from unconscious conflicts and the anxiety they caused.
Ego psychology
Emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological
disorders to the failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts
Object relations
Modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of
children incorporate memories and values of people who are close and
important to them.
Free association
Psychoanalytic therapy process where a patient says whatever comes to
mind without censoring in an attempt to explore threatening material
repressed into the unconscious
Dream analysis
Psychoanalytic therapy method in which dream contents are examined as
symbolic of the id's impulses and intrapsychic conflicts
Psychoanalyst
Therapist who practices psychoanalysis
Transference
Psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients make seek to relate to the
therapist as they do to other important figures in their lives, namely
parents.
Psychodynamic
psychotherapy
Contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes unconscious
processes and conflicts but is briefer and focuses more on specific issues.
Self actualizing
Process in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their
highest potential against difficult life experiences.
Person centered therapy
Therapy method in which the client directs the course of discussion,
seeking self responsibility and self discovery
Unconditional positive
regard
Acceptance by the therapist of the client's feelings and actions without
judgement
Classical conditioning
Type of learning where a neutral stimulus is paired with a response until it
elicits that response
Extinction
When the conditioned response decreases because the reinforcement is
removed
Introspection
Clients report on their feelings and inner thoughts in response to a stimuli

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Systematic
desensitization
Gradual exposure to feared stimuli paired with a positive coping
experience, usually relaxation.
Behavioural therapy
therapy methods based on principles of behaviour and cognitive science as
well as principles of learning, considers specific behaviours as targets for
change
Reinforcement
In operant conditioning, a consequence that strengthens a behaviour
Shaping
Reinforcing successive approximations to a final behaviour or set of
behaviours
Multidimensional
integrative approach
Approach to the study of psychopathology that holds that psychological
disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors
Genes
Long DNA molecules, the basic physical units of heredity that appear as
locations on chromosomes
Diathesis stress model
Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (vulnerability) and specific
stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder
Vulnerability
Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder
Reciprocal gene-
environment model
Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also
have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote
the disorder
Neuroscience
Study of the nervous system and its role in behaviours, thoughts and
emotions.
Neurons
Individual nerve cells responsible for transmitting information
Synaptic cleft
Space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move
impulses from one neuron to the next
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft to transmit impulses from one
neuron to the next. Relative excess or deficiency is involved in several
psychological disorders
Hormone
Chemical messenger produced by endocrine glands
Brain circuits
Neurotransmitter currents or neural pathways in the brain
Reuptake
Action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the
discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft.
Inverse agonist
Chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular
neurotransmitter
Agonist
Chemical substance that increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by
imitating its effects
Antagonist
Chemical substance that decreases or blocks effects of a neurotransmitter
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