PSYCH257 Study Guide - Final Guide: Basal Ganglia, Tardive Dyskinesia, Hypokinesia

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PSYCH 257: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY NOTES
Chapter 1: Abnormal Behaviour in Historical Context
Psychopathology – scientic study of psychological disorders
Psychological Disorder – psychological dysfunction within an individual that is associated
with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally
expected
oDysfunction – breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioural functioning; not
able to think, feel, or behave in a typical way
Ex. going out on a date should be fun, but you experience severe fear all
evening and just want to go home (not feeling as people should)
Ex. anorexia – only allows herself to eat veggies because she thinks if she eats
anything else it will make her fat (not thinking as people should)
oDistress or Impairment
Distress – feeling upset about the problem
By itself, this criterion doesn’t dene abnormal behaviour
oEx. anorexia – some people feel pride in their control of eating and
weight (opposite of distress)
For some disorders, su%ering and distress are absent
oEx. bipolar – extremely elated and acts impulsively as part of
manic episodes
Impairment – interfering with functioning; impairs ability to do certain
activities (socially, academically, etc.); not able to perform typical duties you’d
be expected to do
Ex. anorexia – can’t go out with friends to dinner because of food issues
Ex. bipolar – in manic episodes, they might become promiscuous even if
in a committed relationship or spend lots of money that they don’t have
(impairs relationship and nancials)
Ex. so shy that you make every attempt to avoid interactions even
though you would like to have friends (social functioning is impaired)
oDeviant – response is atypical or not culturally expected, deviates from the average,
di%erent from socio-cultural norms
Ex. OCD – check if stove is turned o% 30 times before leaving house (most
people only check once or twice)
Ex. Muslims fast during Ramadan, but that’s not anorexia; students typically
drink more than adults, but that’s not a substance disorder
oHarmful Dysfunction – a psychological disorder is caused by a failure of one or more
mechanisms to perform their evolved function and the dysfunction produces harm or
distress (this provides a potentially objective analysis of the structure/function of the
relevant psychological mechanisms, along with allowing a subjective or culturally
bound consideration of harm/distress)
Phobia – psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or
situation
Clinical Description – represents the unique combination of behaviours, thoughts, and
feelings that make up a specic disorder
oPresenting Problem – why the person came to the clinic
oPrevalence – how many people in the population as a whole have the disorder
oIncidence – how many new cases occur during a given period
oCourse – pattern (chronic – last a long time; episodic – likely to recover in a few
months but have a recurrence later; time-limited – will improve without treatment in a
relatively short period)
oPrognosis – anticipated course of a disorder
Etiology – study of origins/causes of disorders; includes biological, psychological, and social
dimensions; used to include supernatural, but not any more
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oTheories about etiology inform treatment and vice versa
Ex. if you think the etiology is biological, then the treatment is thought should
be biological (and vice versa)
Psychoanalytic Theory (Sigmund Freud)
oStructure of the mind, its defence mechanisms, and the stages of early psychosexual
development
oThe mind has three major parts:
Id – source of our strong sexual and aggressive energies; our instinctual drives
Humans are fundamentally born with this innate (primitive) pleasure-
driven urge (Id) that we seek through sex or aggression
Libido – sex drive; the positive energy or drive within the Id
Thanatos – death instinct
Pleasure Principle – overriding goal of maximizing pleasure and
eliminating any associated tension/con7icts
Unconscious
Ego – part of our mind that ensures we act realistically; executive/manager of
our minds
Reality Principle – logical, reality-based principles; secondary
process/urge
Purpose is to mediate con7ict between the Id and the Superego, juggling
their demands with the reality of the world
oIf unsuccessful, psychological disorders develop
Fully aware
Defence Mechanisms – unconscious protective processes that keep
primitive emotions associated with con7icts in check so the Ego can
continue its coordinate function
oEx. denial, displacement, projection, rationalization, reaction
formation, repression, sublimation
Superego – conscience
Moral Principle – moral lessons and societal norms instilled in us by
parents and culture
Purpose is to counteract the aggressive and sexual drives of the Id that
are potentially dangerous
oThis is the basis for con7ict (intrapsychic con0icts)
Unconscious
oPsychosexual Stages of Development – oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
Oedipus Complex – young boys desire to have sex with their mothers and
want to take the place of their father
Castration Anxiety – the fear that the father may punish the son for that
lust by removing the son’s penis helps the boy keep his lustful impulses
toward his mother in check
Oedipus Rex – Greek tragedy where Oedipus is fated to kill his father
and, unknowingly, marry his mother
Con7ict is resolved when the boy reconciles the simultaneous anger and
love for the father and then channels his libidinal impulses into
heterosexual relationships
Electra Complex – counterpart con7ict in girls; young girls desire to replace
the mother and possess the father
Central to this possession is the young girl’s desire to have a penis, so as
to be more like the father and brother (Penis Envy)
oWhen females develop healthy heterosexual relationship and look
forward to having a baby, it is viewed as a healthy substitute for
having a penis, and thus resolves the con7ict
oHypnosis – a state in which suggestible subjects sometimes appear to be in a trance
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People can talk about things more freely that they would not be able to let out
if they were fully conscious
Freud and Breuer “discovered” the unconscious mind through hypnosis
Catharsis – emotional release; recalling and reliving emotional trauma that
has been made unconscious and releasing the accompanying tension is
therapeutic
Etiology of Hypnosis – intrapsychic con7icts between di%erent structures of
mind
Humanistic Theory (Carl Rogers)
oEtiology of this theory was unique experiences and perspectives, thwarted needs, and
conditional regard
oSelf-Actualization – humans are born with innate desire to learn, explore, and
pursue what we are interested in
We can all reach our highest potential, in all areas of functioning, if only we
have the freedom to grow
Every person is basically good and whole, so most blocks originate outside the
individual (ex. di?cult living conditions or stressful life or interpersonal
experiences may move you away from your true self)
Environmental situations thwarts needs
oEx. confused with what their parents tell them they should be
doing and what is actually good/bad for the individual
Hierarchy of Needs – beginning with our most basic physical needs (food and
sex) and ranging upward (self-actualization, love, self-esteem); social needs
(friendship) fall somewhere in between; cannot progress up the hierarchy until
lower level needs are satised
oPerson-Centered Therapy – give individual chance to develop during the course of
therapy, unfettered by threats to the self; therapists take a passive role, making as
few interpretations as possible
Give clients what they missed during their childhood, be supportive, and they
will eventually nd that self-actualization again
Unconditional Positive Regard – complete and almost unqualied
acceptance of most of the client’s feelings and actions
Empathy – sympathetic understanding of the individual’s particular view
of the world
Hoped-for result is that clients will be more straightforward and honest with
themselves and will access their innate tendencies toward growth
Behavioural Model
oEtiology was learning by:
Operant Conditioning (B. F. Skinner) – behaviour changes as a function of
what follows the behaviour; rewards increase/strengthen behaviour,
punishments decrease/weaken behaviour
Ex. anorexia – gets complimented when loses weight, gets teased when
gaining weight
Ex. if someone tries to be assertive in social situations and gets
criticized/judged for it, they might start to withdraw from social situations
and eventually develop social anxiety
Using punishment as a consequence is relatively ine%ective in the long
run and the primary way to develop new behaviour is to positively
reinforce desired behaviour
Shaping – process of reinforcing successive approximations to a nal
behaviour or set of behaviours
Observational Learning – watching others and repeating their reactions
Ex. prof’s daughter and wasp story
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