PSYCH 261- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 9 pages long!)

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PSYCH 261
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Long Answer Exam 2
1. Identify and explain the three criteria for establishing cause-and-effect
relationships between variables. Discuss the ability to satisfy these criteria when
using correlational and experimental designs.
Independent variable (cause)
- Naturally occurring and manipulated in experiment
Dependent variable (effect)
- Depends on IV and measured by investigator
Confounding variable (alternate cause)
- Closely associated with independent variable
Correlation study: investigate relationship between two variables
- Investigator manipulates IV and sees what happens to the DV
Three criteria:
1.) Temporal precedence
a. Cause must precede effect
b. Have people do something to get immediate reactions
2.) Covariation
a. Cause and effect must occur together
b. Must be the correlation in the first place
3.) Alternative explanations must be explained
a. Random assignment to get rid of the person confounds
b. Experimental control for situation confounds
Cause and effect relationships can be established only using experimental studies
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2. Explain the following expressions as they apply to neurons and neuronal
ouiatio: lok & key; all-or-oe; iforatio flos dostrea.
Define agonist and antagonist as they apply to neuronal communication and
provide a detailed explanation of two examples each. Explain the difference
etee Loalizatio of Futio ad Lateralizatio ad proide to
examples of each.
All-or-oe is when a stimulated neutron always fires at the same intensity and speed. The strength
of sensation depends on the rate that the cells fire and the number of stimulated cells.
Lok ad key lok ad ke; a aalog used to eplai ho euotasittes ad thei eeptos
work
→ Neuotasittes = ke
→ Reeptos = Lok
The analogy refers to a postsynaptic receptor sites that only allow molecules with specific shapes to bind
to the receptor.
iforatio flos dostrea → Ifoatio ol taels i oe dietio though euos floig
downstream).
→ Ifoatio is picked up from the dendrites and transferred to the soma where it is transferred to the
axon where it goes to the presynaptic terminals that sends information to the next neuron which
repeats this flow of information.
Agonist An agonist is any substance that increases the activity of neurotransmitters.
Examples:
o Antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are agonists
because they increase the activity of serotonin. This helps people with major depressive
disorder increase serotonin levels. Antidepressants are an example of a clean drug
because they target specific neurotransmitters.
o Cocaine is an agonist because it raises dopamine levels to their highest level of activity.
Cocaine is an example of a dirty drug because it targets more than just dopamine.
Antagonist An antagonist is a decrease in the activity of a specific neurotransmitter.
Examples:
o Antipsychotics are antagonists because they decrease the levels of dopamine in the
brain, therefore levelling the mind.
o Anti-anxiety medications are antagonists because they decrease the nervous system to
help individuals feel relaxed.
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Document Summary

Long answer exam 2: identify and explain the three criteria for establishing cause-and-effect relationships between variables. Discuss the ability to satisfy these criteria when using correlational and experimental designs. Depends on iv and measured by investigator. Investigator manipulates iv and sees what happens to the dv. Temporal precedence: cause must precede effect, have people do something to get immediate reactions. Covariation: cause and effect must occur together, must be the correlation in the first place. Alternative explanations must be explained: random assignment to get rid of the person confounds, experimental control for situation confounds. Cause and effect relationships can be established only using experimental studies: explain the following expressions as they apply to neurons and neuronal (cid:272)o(cid:373)(cid:373)u(cid:374)i(cid:272)atio(cid:374): (cid:862)lo(cid:272)k & key(cid:863); (cid:862)all-or-(cid:374)o(cid:374)e(cid:863); (cid:862)i(cid:374)for(cid:373)atio(cid:374) flo(cid:449)s do(cid:449)(cid:374)strea(cid:373)(cid:863). Define agonist and antagonist as they apply to neuronal communication and provide a detailed explanation of two examples each.

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