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PSYCH291 Study Guide - Final Guide: Triangle Group, Experiment, Intravenous Therapy

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John Holmes
Study Guide

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Multiple Choice Question Example (Warning: Some MC questions are difficult!)
1. In general, Dr. Waechter is very concerned about internal validity. Hence, after
reading an article involving a true experiment, Dr. Waechter should be:
a) pleased that random assignment was used
b) concerned that the results may not replicate in other cultures
c) concerned that the DV leads to the IV, rather than the other way around
d) pleased that the IV was measured
e) worried that a third variable may explain the results
Short essay questions worth 5 points. Four of these will appear on the final exam.
1. Describe and provide an example of a repeated measure in an experimental design.
What is the main problem with this type of design? Please give an example.
A repeated measure is used for within-subject designs.
A measure (or comparable ones) are repeated at different times.
By repeating the results from one time and 1 at a later time,
researchers can compare the results from the initial measurement and
determine results are compared for each time. .
The main problem :
owith repeated testing is that itself is a threat to internal validity (itcus is a testing
For example, if the same test is performed once, the participant is now familiar
with the test – it is likely they will perform higher next time the do the test – which reduces
the validity of the second results and is a threat to the validity of any causal inference found
through the study32
2. Illustrate a set of results for a 2 x 2 factorial design where two main effects occur in
conjunction, with no interaction. Provide an example, along with a table of actual numerical
scores and a graph, providing appropriate labels for each effect. What numbers represent the
size of the main effects?
A1 F A2M
A1 A2
Drug and no Drug treatments for male and female

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3.What are three purposes of factorial designs? Illustrate one of those purposes with a graph
example, carefully labelled.
Interactions can help us understand the HOW and WHY of things
Measure the simultaneous effects of multiple variables
Answering why/how: Identify mechanisms
Answering WHEN effects occur – identifying critical conditions
Answering WHEn something still occurs; some reactions are only apparent in
CERTAIN contexts – certain times when
Block desigsn and generalizations across population
4.Describe the nature of a terminative interaction in plain English. In addition, provide a brief
example and draw a rough graph to illustrate the pattern of results.
part of the triangle group
Either treatment produces an effect
No benefit in combining 2 treatments
5.Describe the nature of a catalytic interaction in plain English. In addition, provide a brief
example and draw a rough graph to illustrate the pattern of results.
part of triangle group
combination of both treatments are necessary to produce an effect
2 main effects
Explain as if to a 10-year-old child the concept of random assignment and why scientists
find it so useful for establishing that X causes Y (i.e., do not use words that a 10-year-old
would not understand).
Random assignment is useful for scientists to determine that X causes Y
because it makes sure that
o everyone in all conditions of the experiment are all roughly the
same, and
oany differences between them will cancel each other out.
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