PSYCH312 Final: Psych 312 Part B essay outline
SchoolUniversity of Waterloo
ProfessorErnie Mac Kinnon
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PART B: ESSAY QUESTIONS
You will be asked to answer TWO of the following questions. A selection of five of the following questions
(selected at random) will appear on your exam from which you can choose two to answer. It should take you no
longer (and no shorter) than 75 minutes altogether to complete Part B. Part B will be worth 1/2 of your final
mark on the exam with each question worth 1/4 of your final mark.
1. Write a critical evaluation of the definition of learning disability that is incorporated into U.S. Public Law
2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of employing standardized norm referenced AND criterion
referenced tests in assessing learning problems in children.
3. Would it be questionable to use standardized tests of intelligence in the assessment of immigrant
children thought to have learning problems? What alternatives to using standardized tests might an
assessor consider in carrying out such an assessment?
4. "...if you teach a learning-disabled boy a fact, you help him for the moment; however, if you teach the
boy how to think about learning, you help him for a lifetime."
5. Explain phonological awareness and the role it is thought to play in learning to read.
6. Discuss the concept of Working Memory. How is it assessed? What adjustments in remedial
instruction might be taken to assist those with working memory problems? Provide specific examples
for instruction in reading comprehension, spelling, OR arithmetic.
7. How may deficits in cognitive and perceptual processes lead to specific problems in word reading?
8. Discuss the issues involved and options available for treating individuals with Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
3. Would it be questionable to use standardized tests of intelligence in the assessment
of immigrant children thought to have learning problems? What alternatives to
using standardized tests might an assessor consider in carrying out such an
•Yes it would be questionable to use standardized tests of intelligence in the assessment of
immigrant children thought to have learning problems because immigrant children
adopted different cultural values that may interfere or influence their achievements. For
example, in the East Asian culture, the focus of academics is on mathematics. If an
average Chinese student’s mathematics score was compared to the mathematics score of
an average Native American student (whose culture does not emphasize on mathematics
in the field of academics), the Chinese student’s mathematics score may be more likely to
be higher than the Native American student’s score. The Native American student may be
perceived as having difficulties in mathematics only because of cultural differences and
emphasis on mathematics. Early experiences can also affect the differences in scores as
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