PSYCH312R Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Disability, Memory, Learning Disability

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PSYCH312R
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what are learning disabilities?
there have been problems deciding what the definition of a learning disability is.
History of Learning Disabilities:
number of children w/ learning disabilities increase throughout the years?
o always present - but not always identified.
o this children were misdiagnosed or ignored
In the past:
o children thought of as lazy, dumb, lack will to learn
this made them feel bad about themselves
most of them would drop out of school
1940s-50s
o noticed that children who were not brain-damaged acted like they were
o referred to these children as:
perceptually handicapped
hyperkinetic
minimally brain damaged
dyslexic
learning disabled
1960s
o field overwhelmed with a bunch of terms
o many used today but back then couldn’t agree on what they meant
o only agreement was that these children were failing in school
o 1963
Samuel A. Kirk first used the term learning disability at education
conference
first big event that led to the use of the term.
o 1968
National Advisory Committee on Handicapped Children defined learning
disabilities.
made a group so they could ask the government for funding
disorder of the brain that can affect some skills such as reading, writing,
mathematical equations, etc.
if your learning disability is due to another physical issue = not a learning
disability.
o 1975
education for all handicapped children act (public law 94-142) was passed
by US Congress
groundbreaking moment for disabled children across north
america.
revamped as IDEA, Individuals with Disability Education Act in
1990,97.
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equal access to education for children w/ physical and mental
disabilities
evaluate children w/ disabilities
make sure children who have a disability get the same
education as those who dont
1977
this act was implemented in public schools
o Student has a proper disability if
does not achieve the proper age and ability levels in one or more specific
areas when provided with good learning experiences
if they have a severe discrepancy in achievement and intellectual ability in
one of these areas:
oral expression
listening comprehension
written expression
reading skills
reading comprehension
mathematics calc
mathematics reasoning
must be failing in school
Criticisms in History: Problems with the definition
exhibit a “disorder in one of more of the basic psychological processes”
o couldn’t agree on what a psychological processes were.
could not jointly occur with other conditions
o who is to say that a learning disability can’t occur due to a different condition
o e.g. malnutrition has a link to learning disabilities.
adolescents and adults
o no revisions for these age groups
o what did this mean for those people? They’re not getting the help they need
History Continued
1990:
o National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities
updated the LD definition
adults + adolescents can have LD throughout the lifespan
brain disorder - problem with CNS
problems with social skills, regulating behaviour can co-occur with LD
but are not a learning disorder themselves.
learning disability can occur with other conditions, but they are not the
result of those conditions or influences
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