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PSYCH317 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Dyssomnia, Pituitary Gland, Intellectual Disability


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH317
Professor
Elizabeth Nilsen
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chapter 2
3 temperament styles:
Positive affect and approach
easy child
generally approachable and adaptive to his or her environment
possesses the ability to regulate basic functions of eating, sleeping, and elimination relatively
smoothly.
Fearful or inhibited
slow-to-warm-up child
Cautious in their approach to new or challenging situations
More variable in self-regulation and adaptability and may show distress or negativity towards
some situations
Negative affect or irritability
difficult child
Predominantly negative and intense in mood and not very adaptable
Show distress when faced with new and challenging situation and more prone to distress or
irritability when limitations are placed on them
Predisposing causes increase susceptibility to the onset of disorders, whereas precipitating causes
typically bring on the disorder
4 major neurotransmitters in the brain:
Benzodiazepine-GABA reduces arousal, anger, hostility, and aggression
Dopamine acts as a switch that turns on various brain circuits allowing other
neurotransmitters to inhibit or facilitate emotions and behaviours
Norepinephrine controls emergency reactions and alarm responses; plays a role in emotional
and behavioral regulation
Serotonin plays a role in information and motor coordination
Continuous patterns of behavioral development
Changes are gradual and quantitative
Future behaviour patterns can be predicted from earlier patterns
Discontinuous patterns of behavioral development
Changes are abrupt and qualitative
Future behavior is poorly predicted from earlier patterns
Emotional regulation enhancing, maintaining, or inhibiting emotional arousal for a specific purpose or
goal
Emotional reactivity individual’s level of distress and sensitivity to the environment in comparison to
their individual threshold and intensity of emotional experience
Chapter 4
The decision-making process typically begins with a clinical assessment.
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Clinical assessments use systematic problem-solving strategies to understand children with
disturbances and their family and school
Strategies typically include an assessment of the child’s emotional, behavioral, and cognitive
functioning, as well as the role of environmental factors
idiographic case formulation - An assessment approach that emphasizes the detailed representation
of the individual child or family as a unique entity
nomothetic formulation - An assessment approach that emphasizes general principles that apply to all
people
Cultural syndromes refer to a pattern of cooccurring, relatively invariant symptoms associated with a
particular cultural group, community, or context
First, assessing and describing the intensity, frequency, and severity of her problem. Second, you would
need to describe the age at onset and duration of her difficulties. Finally, you would want to convey a full
picture of her different symptoms and their configuration.
Prognosis is the formulation of predictions about future behavior under specified conditions
Treatment planning and evaluation means using assessment information to generate a plan to
address the child’s problem and to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment
Three purposes of assessment are:
(1) description and diagnosis that determine the nature and possible causes of the child’s problem
(2) prognosis that predicts future behavior under specified conditions
(3) treatment planning and evaluation
Semi-structured interviews include specific questions designed to elicit information in a relatively
consistent manner regardless of who is conducting the interview
Behavioral assessment is a strategy for evaluating the child’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in
specific settings, and then using this information to formulate hypotheses about the nature of the
problem and what can be done about it
involves observing the child’s behavior directly, rather than inferring how children think,
behave, or feel on the basis of their descriptions of inkblots or the pictures they draw
ABCs of assessment”:
A = Antecedents, or the events that immediately precede a behavior
B = Behavior(s) of interest
C = Consequences, or the events that follow a behavior
Behaviour analysis/functional analysis of behaviour An effort to identify as many factors as
possible that could be contributing to a child’s problem behavior, thoughts, and feelings, and to develop
hypotheses about which ones are the most important and/or most easily changed
Neuropsychological assessments usually consist of comprehensive batteries that assess a full range of
psychological functions:
verbal and nonverbal cognitive functions language, abstract reasoning, and problem solving
perceptual functions visual, auditory, and tactile-kinesthetic
motor functions strength, speed of performance, coordination, and dexterity
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