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PSYCH353 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hindsight Bias, Cognitive Dissonance, Impression Formation

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Daniel Nadolny
Study Guide

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Flushbulb memories people are confident abt it but are not really accurate about it.
o Seems like we’re remembering things perfectly but it really is because of the
reconstructive process we have (Phaleontoly echos)
o We remember incongruent info as long as we have the info or clues around us
We remember things better if it matches our expectancies
When people are told that they’ll interact with the person, they’ll remember things better than
telling them to memorize the information study impression formation goals and encoding
People change the memories of the past in order to be in line with their expectancies; we
change the interpretation of events based on our understanding - Fiscchoff, Hindsight bias
Effects of goals in retrieval: if you tell that extraversion is good, they’ll rate themselves as more
introverted; goal serving as motivation (Kunda and Fong paper)
Theories about stability and change: if we want to see change, we remember our past selves as
different and motivated to see themselves better; if we want stability/ has the theory of
stability, it’s vice versa (Wilson and Ross study: in Sept, everybody is excited and happy, in
November not everyone is not happy (but when they think back in September, they think that
they’re even worse in September than what they are in November cause they wanna see
themselves improving)
Mood congruent memory
o Memory for things that match the valence of our current mood; when we’re happy, we
might remember cake or chocolate easily
Mood Incongruent memory
Mood-dependent memory
o What we feel right now matches the situation when you’re happy and people die,
you’ll remember that
Play tetris to stop dramatic memories to having formed
Memory 2
Perspective taking
o 1st person P is concrete people focus more on the sensations and perceptions
o 3rd person we see ourselves in the situation____________/ contextual change
Eyewitness evidence very bad
o Estimator variables we can’t control
o System we can control
o (Loftus and Palmer) You know this
o (Lindsay et al.) You know this
o Pre line up instructions we have biased stuff blabla
o People can be not quite very confident at all and can be really confident afterwards
o Confirmation adds confidence to people’s decisions
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