PSYCH354 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - India, Weimar Republic, Twin Study

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PSYCH354
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PSYCH 354R - Lecture 1 - Introduction and Research Methods
What Are Intimate Relationships?
crucial ingredients:
- interdependence that’s bidirectional, extended over time, extended across situations
- bidirectional: both influence each other
- extended over time: affected past and further interactions in the future
- extended across situations: what house to live in, etc.
- close, personal rls. with expectations of sexual intimacy
Why Study Close Relationships?
close relationships are universally valued
- important across age groups, across cultures, have been important across time
“people who have strong social bonds tend to live longer, be happier, and thrive more economically
Relationships and Subjective Well-being
married people report greater happiness than those who are separated, widowed, unmarried and living
together
relationship quality is also important: married person in a good quality marriage are happier than those
who are married with bad quality marriage
single consistent predictor of well-being in 42 countries: quality of close relationships
happiest people (top 10%) have one thing in common: good relationships
40% of married adults and 23% of unmarried adults report being “very happy
- protection effect and selection effect
Relationships and Well-being
single people who are well past average age of marriage often stigmatized, stereotyped, and ignored
ex; Singled Out, book by Bella DePaulo, presents myths of single people:
- the dark aura of singlehood: you are miserable and lonely and your life is tragic
- it is all about you: like a child, you are self-centered and immature and your time isn’t worth
anything since you have nothing to do but play
- attention, single women: your work won’t love you back and your eggs dry up
- attention, single men: you are horny, slovenly, and irresponsible and you are the scary
criminals, OR you are sexy, fastidious, frivolous, and gay
Selection Effects
a group of people differs because of differences in the people that chose to enter that group
studies show: single people who are happier more likely to marry than to stay single and people who
are less happy before marriage more likely to divorce
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- people who are happy to begin with: easier to be with in a rls., engage in more positive
behaviour and view rls. positively
Protection Effects
idea that marriage makes people happy
- for financial well-being
- sexual frequency, happiness with sex life linked with happiness in general
- physical health
- ex; hand holding study: study wanted to see if their partner’s presence will dampen the
threat response
- three conditions: some held spouse’s hand during study, some held stranger’s
hand, and controlled condition (no one to hold)
- people who held hands with partner and were happy in rls. = calmer, dampened
threat
- ex; heart failure study: recruit spouses after one of them had a heart attack
- also included to discuss area of disagreement of each spouses, see how many
positive/negative things within conflicts (to see which rls. were happy/not
- in 4 years following spouse’s heart attack
- those who had happy rls. = 30% of patients died
- 55% of unhappy patient died
idea that interpersonal stressors have a higher risk of giving us a cold rather than other ones
Intimate Relationship Quality and Children
children of single parents tend to have worse outcomes
- increase chances of poverty, emotional and behavioural problems
- divorce also hard on children
should parents “stay together for the sake of the children?”
- quality of parents rls. also affect child’s relationship
- sometimes it's better for parents to separate (bc their conflicts at home can lead to behavioural
problems and probably for children to risk having intimate issues on their own)
Research Methods
Why Study Relationships Scientifically?
hindsight bias is present when observing couples (do birds of a feather flock together or do opposites
attract?)
is out of sight out of mind or does absence make the heart grow fonder?
“Popular” Psychology
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