REC 101 Final Exam review

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Recreation and Leisure Studies
REC 101
Katie Misner

Overview of Sectors August-27-12 8:55 AM Types of leisure activities:  Social  Physical  Cultural  Outdoor  Leisure travel & tourism  Multi-media usage  Entertainment and amusements Leisure: an activity in which an individual is engaged during free time. However, effective service providers must consider offering services that meet subjective criteria as well. Commercial Sector  Profit motive Examples: Wonderland, Goodlife Fitness  Customer loyalty  Purveyor of good and/or services Non-Profit Sector  Social Welfare orientation Examples: Girl Guides of Canada, Local Sports Club  Serves specific groups/ social causes (can be membership based or not) Public Sector  Serves the public good Example: City of Waterloo, Recreation & Leisure Services  Includes federal, state, & municipal governments Organizations Purpose (Core Area of Mission) Relates to the central goals that determine the agency's activities Why offer certain goods or services?  Fall within the mission  Sufficient demand to sustain them  Tradition of provision  Generate revenue or profit  Political reasons Mixed Economy:  Organizations in different sectors direct and influence leisure provision -vs. purely "market-driven"  Relative strength of each sector in economic mix is constantly changing Social Trends & Commercial Sector September-16-12 10:56 PM National Picture- On average Canadians spent on leisure in 2005 was 5.5 hours a day. (time decreased between 1998 &2005) Gender- Men spend more time on leisure than women. Age- Older and younger adults (non-prime working years) spent the most time on leisure. Leisure Time = 18% of our day Types of leisure/ time of our day  Civic and voluntary activities = 0.3 hours/day  Socializing in homes = 1.2 hours/day  Socializing in restaurants =0.3 hours/day  TV Watching = 2.5 hours/day  Sports, movies and other entertainment = 0.2 hours/day  Active Leisure = 1.1 hours/ day AGING POPULATION  If current trends continue the proportion of the population aged 65 or older will eventually overtake the number of youth under 15 years of age IMMIGRATION Q: How do these immigration numbers change the commercial sector of leisure based upon 'un-natural immigration'? Family Composition  Two parent and children households is down; families with no children at home is up  Family's are having children much later (new trend) based upon new opportunities for women  Common law unions is up  Size of household have dropped in the last two decades o Larger number of Not going to buy a family membership, offer opportunities for Canadians living alone them to no longer be alone (feel part of a community)  Lone parent households may lack the time and disposable income to participate in leisure activities HEALTH Trends  Childhood obesity o Increases in both boys and girls o Nearly tripled in last 25 years  Factors contributing to obesity o Less activity work o More easily accessible travel\fewer opportunities to be active in school o Fewer walking to and from school o Larger portion sizes and consumption of processed foods Urbanization  75% of Canadian population is in urban areas  Intensification and densification of urban cores  Public space at risk Environmental Concerns  Climate Change o Changes in modern climate o How will (or has) it changed leisure activity?  Less snow for skiing/snowmobile  Less consistent weather for planning of trips  Less outdoor skating rinks (Rideau canal)  Less economic growth because of these issues Commercial Sector How do commercial providers differ from other service providers?  They are there to make a profit  The expect a return on investments  The design programs to tap consumer spending (looking for a niche) Social roles & Expectations  Expected to contribute to the economic well-being of the community (jobs, tax revenue)  Economic impact is regarded with greater importance than social impact Types of Commercial Organizations  Leisure products businesses o Manufacture and distribute leisure goods and equipment  Leisure services businesses o Providers of leisure programs and experiences  Business sponsors of leisure o Sponsors of leisure events and products  LPGA sponsored by CN  CIBC Run for the Cure Commercial Leisure Services  Travel & Tourism o The movement of people and the provision of travel related services  Hospitality o The provision of accommodations, f&b, and related amenities  Local Commercial Recreation o Primary function is the provision of retail products, entertainment, and recreation programs for people in their home communities  Facilitators o These types of commercial recreation businesses support the businesses from the other three categories o Travel & transportation Facilitators  Airlines  Rental care  Bus lines o Hospitality Facilitators  Hotels and motels  Restaurants  Resorts o Commercial Recreation  Theatres  Fair/festivals  Concerts  Water parks o Multiple sectors  Casinos  Theme parks Sole Proprietorship  One person owns the business and is legally responsible for its debts and legal obligations  Advantages o High personal incentive o Quick decision making o Reaps all profits o Go out of business quickly if desired  Disadvantages o Risk of personal loss\limited talent o Limited capital o Unlimited liability Partnerships  Two or more people pool their funds and abilities to go into business for profit o Advantages  Greater capital  Improved credit standing  More talent  Few legal restrictions o Disadvantages  Potential management conflict  Unlimited liability  Difficult to withdraw investment Corporations  A separate legal entity o Advantages  Limited liability to its owners  Easy to raise capital  Ability to transfer ownership easily o Disadvantages  Higher costs to establish  Must disclose information regarding financial affairs to shareholders Commercial Branding September-19-12 9:43 AM Main Point  Everything about an organization communicates! Corporate Identity  The cues offered by an organization both internally and externally o Through symbols, communication, and behaviour  The 'idea' or 'persona' of the organization and how it represented to different audiences o Programs or commitments they use in order to portray themselves in a certain way  Meant to display the organizations personality Why is identity important?  Creates awareness  Triggers recognition  Activates already stored images  Allows people to identify with an organization  Impacts consumer loyalty  Business enhancement Monolithic Identity  Associated with organizations where the entire company uses the same visual style  Everything in the identity mix is the same for all products and divisions Endorsed Identity  Associated with organizations whose subsidiaries have their own style and distinction, but the parent company is still visible in the background o Westin Hotels and Resorts, owned by Starwood Hotels Branded Identity  The organization has a number of brands, products, and it is nearly impossible to know who the parent company is o Cedar Fair. The Partnership is one of the largest regional amusement parks operator in the world, With eleven amusement parks and six water parks Image  Composite psychological impression that can change based o the organizations situation or media portrayal  Perception in the mind of the consumer/client rather than reflection of the actual or desired state of the organization  Image is fluid and can change easily Brand  The visual, emotional, rational, and cultural image that you associate with a company or product  Remembering a brand name and having positive associations with a brand o Makes product selection easier o Enhances value and satisfaction Brand Awareness  The bits of information a consumer holds about a brand Brand Equity  There is a assumed value in a well-known brand (more potential for profit)  The differential effect- brand needs to stand out among its competitors Profit & Customer Loyalty September-24-12 9:25 AM MAIN POINT OF THE DAY  THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRONTLINE WORKERS AND CUSTOMERS NEED TO BE THE CENTRE OF MANAGEMENT CONCERNS! Dimensions of Service Quality  Tangibles - appearance of equipment, facilities, and personnel  Reliability - ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately  Responsiveness- willingness to help customers and provide prompt service  Assurance - knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence  Empathy - caring, individualized attention the agency provides its patrons Quality Indicators  Content- are standard and accepted procedures being followed?  Process- is the sequence of events in the service process appropriate?  Structure- are the physical facilities and organizational design adequate for the service?  Outcome- what change in status has the service effected?  Impact- what is the long-range effect of the service on the customer? 1. Customer loyalty drives profitability and growth a. Three R's i. Retention ii. Repeat Sales iii. Referrals 2. Customer satisfaction drives customer loyalty a. Creates apostles i. Customers so satisfied they convert others b. Avoid saboteurs i. Customers so unhappy they speak out against your services 3. Service value drives customer satisfaction a. Value- the results customers receive in relation to the total costs b. Give frontline employees the permission to customize services 4. Employee retention and productivity drives high service value a. Take into account the full cost of the loss of key service providers 5. Employee satisfaction drives retention and productivity a. Keep abreast of employees sentiments 6. Internal Quality drives employee satisfaction a. Feeling employees have towards jobs, colleagues, and companies Managing Change in the Commercial Sector September-26-12 9:32 AM What is organizational change?  Refers to organization-wide change, not smaller changes like adding a new person or modifying a program o Change in mission, restructuring, new technologies, mergers  Requires a fundamental and radical reorientation in the way an organization operates What provokes organizational change?  Change should not be done for the sake of change- it is a strategy to accomplish some overall goal  Usually provoked by some outside driving force o Substantial cuts in funding, address major new markets/clients, response to new social trends Organizations undertake this to move on to a different level in their life cycle. Types of Change 1. Episodic Change a. Organizations are inertial (resistant to change) and change is infrequent, discontinuous, and intentional b. Emphasizes short-run adoption Analytic Framework c. Change is an occasional interruption d. Tends to be dramatic and driven externally e. Seen as a failure of the organizing to adapt its structure Response to Episodic Change  Unfreeze- understanding why change is necessary, preparing, and moving away from comfort zone  Transition- inner movement or journey we make towards change; training, coaching, and expecting mistakes are part of the process  Refreeze establish stability once change occurs; create supportive social norms 2. Continuous change a. Change is a pattern of endless modifications in work processes and social practice b. Driven by organizational instability c. Numerous small accommodations accumulate and amplify Response to Continuous Change  Freeze- review current practice  Rebalance- reinterpret, re-label, re-fashion approach Unfreeze- resume improvisation, translation, and learning in ways that are more mindful of change  Why is it difficult to accomplish?  Change often goes against our values  Change should be accompanied by changes in culture, including changes in members values and beliefs and in the way they enact these values and beliefs. How is organizational change best carried out?  As a team wide effort  Communications about change should be frequent and with all organization members  To sustain change, the structures of the organization itself should be modified, including strategic plans, policies, and procedures  Involves unfreezing, change, and re-freezing process  The best approaches to address resistance is through increased and sustained communications and education CSR Tutorial September-27-12 12:29 PM Definition: corporate conscience, corporate citizenship Companies or organizations should go beyond what they legally have to do when it comes to social responsibility Path to CSR 1. Defensive stage a. Not our job to fix it b. Company faced with unexpected criticism c. Involves outright rejections of allegations or denials of links between practices and outcomes 2. Compliance Stage a. Corporate policy must be established and observed in ways made visible to critics b. Aimed at protecting company's reputation i. "We'll do just as much as we have to do" 3. Managerial Stage a. "It's the business, stupid" b. Realization company is facing a long-term problem that cant be solved through public relations c. Managers are given responsibility for the problem and its solution 4. Strategic Stage a. Realignment toward corporate responsibility gives firm a competitive edge i. "it gives us a strategic edge" 5. Civil Stage a. Company promotes collective action to address society's concerns i. "we need to make sure everybody does it" Societal Learning  Companies must attempt to predict and credibly respond to societal issues Consider: -Is good citizenship good for the bottom line?  Should a corporation invest in CSR practices even if its not good for the bottom line? Reasons For CSR Policy (Disney):  Influencing young minds need to set an example  Profit isn't a major concern with Disney so building community trust and appreciation would help in the long run  "Going green" (cruise ships) clean up environment/reduce pollution  Family friendly, gives strategic edge Social Media & Customer Relations October-01-12 9:32 AM Different Internet Sources:  Sell a product or service  Tech Support  Embellishing existing service  Process orders  Convey Information  Communicate with Membership  Play Games What is Social Media  Online collection of strategies, practices, and tools for communicating, creating, sharing, and discussing information. Digital Consumer Behaviour  Today's consumer connects with brands in fundamentally different ways o Through media channels beyond a business control  Relying heavily on digital interactions, consumers evaluate options and remain engaged with the brand through social media even after purchase Brand & Social Media 1. Offering and communicating a clear customer promise 2. Build trust by delivering on the promise 3. Continually improving the promise 4. Innovating beyond the familiar Customer Relations 1. Develop a formal social media policy o What are the standards and guidelines for on-the-job use of social media? i. Accountability 1. Employees should take responsibility for postings ii. Accuracy and transparency 1. Posts must be factual, identity disclosed iii. Lawfulness 1. Employees must respect legal and professional framework 2. Monitor External and Internal Online Communications o Leverage tools i. Use existing tools to make this task manageable o Mobilize Internal Deputies i. Deputized employees can augment an existing team's efforts 3. Engage Online Communities o Develop a social media presence so that people can talk t
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