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University of Waterloo
Recreation and Leisure Studies
REC 280
Stephen Smith

Chapter 7 – Attractions - Choosing location of vacation depends on many things but entertainment value of destination is critical - Much of Canada’s attraction for tourists lie in natural resources (mountains, lakes, rivers, oceans, and forest and wildlife) but also depend on artificial attractions - Attractions generate overall income of $16.2 billion in 2006 for tourism sector - Three separate areas of tourist activity: attractions, events, and adventure tourism/outdoor recreation - Attraction: consists of permanent sites/facilities that are always available to a tourist - Permanent facilities allow tourists to visit at all times (not necessarily just in the summer) - Events: created by a destination in order to attract specific target markets at specific times o Ex. Caribana - Adventure tourism and outdoor recreation: tourists want to be physically active and enjoy the outdoors - Large groupings of attractions divided into: natural attractions, cultural attractions, attractions that entertain - Criteria to include when designing an attraction: o Determining the sustainability of the attraction: how many people can you bring on a daily/yearly basis without doing irreparable damage? o Identifying target markets: facilities to accommodate visitors need to reflect needs and expectations of visitors o Determining visitor flow patterns: determining where patrons enter and pay, identifying the areas where they tend to spend more time, and providing good signage to guide people o Training of workers and management of facility: do you use workers who have an understanding of the site and its background? - Natural attractions depend on what the country’s landscape offers to the visitor - 40 years ago, prospective visitors viewed history of Canada as new and felt that we had little culture to promote compared to ancient Orient of Europe o World is now taking notice of First Nations and Inuit people (original habitants) - Attractions are usually the reason why people travel - Attractions may be primary destination or only one component of a larger vacation - Theme parks, museums, zoos, casinos, and Broadway-style theatres are a few attractions found around the world - Attractions differ in types and ownerships o Can be privately owned and operated, non-profit, or publically owned Public and Non-Profit Cultural Attractions - Governments own and operate public attractions (taxes usually source of funding) - Governments cut budgets so money for upkeep and enhancement lowered - Public attractions now charging entrance fees and are bringing in special events of shows to boost ticket sales and get more revenue o Also raise revenue from food and beverage service - Non-profit attractions are not in business of making a profit and any revenue earned is funnelled back into the attraction - Some attractions start as public attractions but are no longer funded by the government o Ex. The Log Farm in Ottawa – used as living history site, to show tourists and local residents the farming methods of early 19 century o Government took away funding and now exists on revenue received from grants, donations, membership feeds, and special events such as the sugaring festival - Some non-profit attractions are started by wealthy philanthropists who amass a collection on the subject of their passion and then provide funds to house and maintain the collection o Admission fees and sales of souvenir items often bring in revenue for non-profit attractions - Museum: historical, scientific, or artistic displays o Usually sponsored by government or non-profit organizations but some are commercial for-profit enterprises and few are privately owned - Most museums have a permanent area that displays the same exhibit at all times but another usually houses a succession of travelling shows to keep local people going to museum - Museum has a director, various assistants, and volunteers o Director responsible for searching for new displays, scheduling travelling shows, obtaining permanent displays for the museum, and completing paperwork (budgeting and payroll) o Board of directors responsible for hiring and guiding the director (often elected from membership of museum) o Board and director decide on themes for upcoming year, special events, and marketing ideas - Art Museums: once primarily cultural centers in metropolitan areas – sophisticated tastes gathered to express opinions about the works of a particular artist o Young artists usually start from displaying their work in small galleries, which support the local art museum o Support collected from displaying and advertising work of local artists o Starting with young allows museum to maintain citizen’s lifelong support - Historical museums: more likely than art/scientific museums in small communities o Presents relics, along with written explanation of pieces and sometimes struggle to maintain an uncluttered look - Living history museums: people in period costumes to portray historical figures and times o Successful because they are fun and educational and provide jobs to local people and bring tourists dollars to area - Modern museums allow displays that can be touched and have interactive computers to engage user with communication o Ex. Canadian War Museum – illustrates dreadful conditions and pays homage to its casualties with various interactive activities to bring war to life for visitors to hear what it was like during WWI  Provide a balance of “real life” and simulated experience to educate visitor - Scientific museums: range from dinosaur bones to spaceships; tend to show a process - Site-specific: located where the scientific event took place o Small communities that claim a scientific history can easily create a museum in honour of the person, animal, or event - Children’s museum: allows young children to experiment with various scientific discoveries o Provide hands of experience and encouraged to learn while having fun - Historic sites: located in every country that has taken initiative to commemorate them o United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has placed several Canadian national parks and historic sites on their list of World Heritage Sites in recognition of outstanding universal value of the area o L’Anse aux Meadows (in Newfoundland) commemorates arrival of first Europeans in North America 1000 years ago o PEI’s Province House is considered to be the birthplace of Confederation o Quebec City is Canada’s oldest city and walled with narrow cobblestone streets and ancient greystone houses, churches, and old stone fort with massive gates and cannons o Tourists who visit Manitoba visit the site of the last rebellion that was led by Louis Riel and his band of Métis o Saskatchewan has more museums per capita and history of RCMP comes alive at training headquarters o Alberta has the Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, where aboriginal tribes of Northwest killed buffalo by driving them off high cliffs o BC have Aboriginal people working with cultural ecologists to reconstruct their history - Heritage/Cultural Tourism: immersion in the natural history, human heritage, arts, philosophy, and institutions of another region or country o Heritage is our past – what we have received from our ancestors and what we pass on to future generations o Need experienced, knowledgeable guides to be part of the learning process o Typical heritage tourists are between ages 45-64 and are better educated and have higher income than average visitor  They are willing to spend more money on their vacations - Zoos and Aquariums are mix of both public and private operations o Attractions exhibit animals in enclosed areas or in a natural habitat where they can roam free  Zoos are comfortable natural settings for breeding rare and endangered species  Most zoo animals are healthier than they would be in their wild state  Zoos should be educational but the visitor learns without effort because displays are alive  Sometimes hosts hourly shows with animals  The more people get involved with the animals, the longer the people will stay, the more they will learn, and more they will spend o Aquariums: found inland and exhibit fresh and saltwater fish o Oceanariums: located on the ocean coast and may include large fish such as sharks, seals, otters, dolphins, and other aquatic life  Present special shows with trained dolphins, sea lions, or seals Private Commercial Attractions that Entertain - Private attractions rely on admission fees, food and beverage sales, merchandising, parking charges, and special even fees - Admission fees are often higher than public-sponsored attractions - Private attractions can make quick decisions and adapt faster to markets o Most private attractions are tourist draws and are considered one component of a larger vacation trip - Theme park: concept widely attributed to Walt Disney o Oriented to a particular subject or historical area and combine costuming and architecture with entertainment and merchandise to create a fantasy atmosphere o Disneyland was to have all the virtues of an amusement park with none of the flaws o Tourism tends to combine categories or activities to increase number of target markets that it attracts o Theme parks have developed into large-scale operations that have sophisticated computers controlling rides and animated entertainment o Water theme parks are becoming more attractive to all ages o Success of theme parks built on permission grated to children and adults to forget trials and tribulations of the real world and escape momentarily - Amusement parks: family entertainment centres with rides o Need to provide interactive computer games in a specially designed room o Also need to provide new, exciting rides,, or a new form of entertainment each year to bring back local clientele o Features live entertainment throughout the day, showcasing local and regional entertainers o Nationally known entertainers are brought in to boost attendance during summer o Largest expenditure goes to labour - Live entertainment: need to be promoted in tourist brochures o Some communities thrive because of live entertainment available to audiences o Ex. Tennesse (Grand Ole Opry) - dependent on country singers and dancers - Gaming: gambling is a popular and controversial form of recreation o Four types of gambling: pari-mutuel wagering, lotteries, non-profit organization gambling, and casinos o Casino gambling: includes slot machines roulette, craps (dice), Baccarat, blackjack, and other games of chance  Not all communities welcome gambling o Pari-mutuel gambling: betting pool in which those who bet on the winners of the first three places share the stakes of the losers (minus a percentage for management)  People dine in food facilities at the track and watch  Ex. Kentucky Derby  Excitement is betting in the atmosphere of the racetrack - Shopping is popular with tourists and has become an annual or monthly event for families o Mega-malls: huge shopping and entertainment centres with retail stores and restaurants to indoor theme parks, game rooms, and small theatres (ex. West Edmonton Mall) o Historic marketplaces are often located in historic part of a city’s waterfront, remodelled to suit small boutiques, fresh produce outlets, and food service facilities o Charter buses and tours will make a point to stop at shopping areas such as mega malls, waterfront shops, or factory outlets o Shopping proven to be a financial boon for the entire region and provide travellers with an added site to visit Lecture 7 (February 27) - Distribution across the provinces and territories seem to be similar to previous things - Percentage of tourism firms that belong to recreation/entertainment sector have different patterns - Accommodation for Yukon/NWT has high concentration because of liquor laws - In recreation and entertainment, you see little variation but the most significantly different provinces are New Brunswick and PEI with over 1/5 of tourism businesses falling into this category o PEI is odd one out because of Anne of Green Gables and has created a large industry and shapes the PEI economy and is associated well with tourism - This isn’t just PURE tourism – locals will also go to these destinations - People are buying experiences and not something tangible - Firms in this sector are small and are dominated by young boys and the work patterns are mixed but part time, part year seems to be dominant - The guys are well educated and are dominated by people in university Importance of Attractions - Arguably the most important component in tourism - Main motivators for main trips; core of product - Without attractions, demand for other tourism services would be much smaller - Attraction doesn’t make the most money out of all tourism sectors but generates the demand that makes tourism Definitions of Attractions - Provide entertainment, education, recreational activities as core product at a fixed site - Capable of reporting data separately for attraction activity - Draws visitors as well as locals, open to public - Admission is controlled or can be controlled - Attractions need to have a fixed location and draws visitors and locals and are open to the public Examples of Attractions - Heritage: museums, historic sites o Things that present the history or heritage of the community, province or country - Recreation: golf, skiing, bowling o Doing something physical - Entertainment: theme parks o Something that is more passive – consuming an experience of something that is entertaining (ex. wonderland) - Commercial: gift shops, crafts - Industrial: wineries, breweries o Any factory where things are able for immediate consumption - Most attractions are heritage and then followed by recreation - Public attractions are mainly owned by the municipality or by other organizations - The structure of private attractions are generally corporations followed by sole proprietors and partnerships - 59% are public attractions and 41% are private - 76% are not-for-profit and 24% are for-profit - 52% charge admission and of these, 58% charge an all-inclusive fee o A very common way of charging one fee and get to join the rest of the things o Price depends on the type of attraction - About 50% of attractions are open seasonally o Seasonality is more pronounce d in Atlantic Canada and least in west and north o Access to capital for growth is a major and perennial concern o Insurance costs are a growing problem and is dominant for many attractions  Insurance companies want to minimize risks of public attraction especially after 9-11 o A lot of attractions are small and rely heavily on coop students and local students  When they go back to school, attractions will need to close Chapter 8 – Events - Makes good use of the products and services delivered by five of the other tourism components: accommodations, food and beverage, travel services, attractions, and outdoor recreation - Creates jobs for a variety of other businesses (printers, audiovisual companies, and manufacturers of exhibits) - All events similar in purpose and design but developed for different target markets - Special events: can bring a community new jobs, enhanced image, strengthened community bonds, economic growth, an expanded tourism season, and enhanced diversity of social and cultural activities o Revenues generated benefit tourism businesses, retail businesses, and community associations o Canada’s best destinations have facilities too small to host large conventions or conferences and are overlooked by meeting planners who don’t have enough information about our cities and conference facilities - People working in the events industry need to be outgoing, have excellent organizational skills, good management, people, communication, and problem solving skills - After 9-11, major conferences postponed or cancelled o Global summit meetings (ex. G8) have not suffered from terrorist threats but from activist demonstrations  Being able to control and contain such demonstrations helped to promote a stronger global image of Canada as a safe destination - Festivals and events can be half-day or year-long happenings - Special event – a onetime or infrequently occurring event outside the normal program or activities of the sponsoring or organizing body o Is an opportunity of leisure, social, or cultural experience outside the normal range or choices or beyond everyday experience o Powerful tool for bringing information and political activism to the forefront o Special events have become big business for many municipalities and are one of the most interesting ways of unifying and enhancing the tourist appeal of permanent structures such as museums, zoos, and arenas o Often initiated by travel destinations in order to lure tourists into the region o Each province has their own special events - Festivals: public celebrations centred on themes of local, regional, or national interest o Celebrates jazz, the blues, winter fun, tulips, etc. o Rural cities use special events to lure tourists and excursionists from their region to their town o Festivals attract both local and national television coverage - Fairs: focus on agriculture or history o Event legacies or historical fairs re-create certain period by providing the food and entertainment of that time o Agricultural fairs feature livestock, produce, local arts and crafts, carnival rides, and food o Draw regional tourists by featuring nationally known singers and entertainers and are usually held in late summer to allow crops to mature for competition o Often sponsored by local government of community o CNE is largest carnival/fair held in Canada o Royal Winter Fair brings visitors from across North America but doesn’t have rides or a midway but hosts competitions - Circuses: magic for all ages but there is concern for welfare of circus animals o Sometimes non-profit organizations will sponsor a circus to raise money for hospitals and children’s medical research o Cirque du Soleil does not have animals but gained worldwide recognition for unique creativity that uses tumblers, dancers, and acrobats to entertain audience - Hallmark events: bring tourists from around the world to a destination and can have a large impact on a community o Ex. World Youth Day, Olympics, Commonwealth Games o Olympic games are not privately owned and not about making money – about the sport  Profits either go into community’s pocket or returned to Olympic committee to be used for future events - Fundraising events: many charities depend on these events because of cuts in government funding to hospitals and special disease research facilities o Ex. walk-a-thons, Terry Fox Run - Civic events: includes investiture of a new prime minister or governor general, medal presentations, or opening of a new building o May also be global (New years) o Tourists often plan vacations around these events - Spectator sporting event: largest one is the Olympics o Hockey, tennis, golf, baseball, football, and basketball also draw large crowds o Most spectators live within a 2 hour drive of the event but regional draw of tourists have been growing o Television rights are one of the big ways in which a professional sport sustains itself o Most athletes never make it to professional arena but show love for sport by forming city leagues  Amateur leagues also bring tourist revenue as regions host national championships for variety of sports - Trade shows and expositions: are marketing and sales tool used by many industries to display and sell their products o Not open to general public but designed for specific audiences, small businesses, or entrepreneurs o Usually display the latest developments and products of an industry o Commonly held indoors and require large convention centers to display items o Not generally sponsored by a public or non-profit organization but by the applicable industry or trade association o Revenues for the use of facility go to the community o Those open to the public may focus on one product and the public pays entrance fee and spend the day looking and talking to experts o Ex. Canadian International Food and Beverage Show – held by Canadian Restaurant and Foodservices Association (CRFA) – provides students an educational opportunity o Rendez-Vous Canada: displays Canadian tourism products for the travel trade market o Visit Canada: operated by CTC and focuses on the media; Canadian products are made available to travel writers, photographers, and other media reps for tourism info o Seminars: generally free to those who attend - Conventions: large meetings where delegates come together to share ideas and to achieve some form of consensus o Political party bringing delegates together from across the country to elect a leader  Delegates usually from varying backgrounds o Conventions also held by large associations such as AA or Kiwanis Club  Strong element of recreation to reward those who spend their time working with the organization - Conferences: similar to conventions except delegates usually come from single industry or occupation o Tourism Industry Association of Canada (TIAC) holds annual conference in different city each year so attendees can enjoy varied venues and attractions o Have a more education tone to their programs than conventions - Summits: similar to conferences but tend to be meetings among high-level political leaders, or at least have a political overtone o Ex. G-8 meetings - Teleconferencing: allow businesses and associations to bring together a group of people via telephone or satellite link o Does not add to city’s tourism revenue but hotels and conventions are beginning to provide these services in response to consumer demands - Associations may have different reasons to exist but share these characteristics as a market: o Conventions and conferences usually last three to five days o Voluntary attendance is the norm, so delegates pay their own way o Destination sites must be carefully chosen to entice delegates to attend, and different cities are chosen every year o Accessibility is important to delegates o Regular meeting dates allow delegates to plan their time well in advance o Exhibitions displaying the latest goods are important - Choice of destination is important because delegates often bring their families along, combining business and vacation o As members pay for their travel and accommodations, the cost of the trip is important factor when booking destination - Meeting sites: choice of meeting location is varied – like the products available o Need to address the size of the facility needed o General meeting space must accommodate entire delegation o Breakout rooms: needed to handle panel discussions, seminars, and workshops o Many conferences will choose destinations that offer a wide variety of attractions that families can enjoy during the day, and where delegates can relax after meetings - Conference centres: designed for meetings and provide a quiet working environment for a conference and its delegates o Many large universities use their equipment and facilities during the summer to host small conferences and meetings, gaining revenue from room and services that might be otherwise unused o Banff, Alberta has one of most distinctive conference centers  Established as a retreat for musicians and artists to rejuvenate their spirits and their creativity through professional development offered in range of programs - Convention centres specifically built to handle groups of more than 1000 people and differ from conference centers in several ways: o Larger facilities that don’t have recreational opportunities on the premises o Usually located in big cities o Do not provide guest rooms o Ex. Vancouver Trade and Convention Centre (VTCC) - Building convention centres are expensive and have caused development between the tourism sector and federal, provincial, and municipal governments, which have provided funding as well as special loans - Civic centres also host conventions but primary function is to host special events such as sporting events or cultural shows and exhibits - Canada’s top convention centers: o Halifax World Trade and o Metropolitan Toronto Convention Convention Centre Centre o Quebec Convention Centre o Winnipeg Convention Centre o Montreal Convention Centre o Vancouver Trade and Convention o Ottawa Congress Centre Centre o Victoria Convention Centre - Meeting market has slightly different characteristics of associations market - Characteristics of corporate meeting markets are: o Attendance is mandatory o Cost of meeting is paid for by the business o Number of participants is smaller than that of conference or convention o Meeting generally shorter o Meetings are planned as the need arises and are booked with only a few months’ or weeks’ notice o Same destination may be used repeatedly and is often near corporate headquarters or factories o Exhibits are not part of meeting structure o Emphasis is on business and food service usually provides a working lunch - Disadvantages of special events: o Difficulty finding volunteers o Dissenting community merchants and residents who may block planning o Inadequate planning that may result in financial setbacks that jeopardize future events o Large numbers of visitors who may tax existing accommodations, visitor services, and restaurants, posing a threat to future events if they go home dissatisfied o Damage to the environment o Difficulty attracting visitors until the event becomes widely known - Organizers will fail if they don’t understand the complexities of planning, organizing, and staging a special event - CTHRC has national certification programs for events coordinators, special event manager, and meeting planner - Need to develop knowledge in these areas if you want to go into events management: o Client needs and expectations: need to have clear understanding of the event, the needs of your client, and the projected outcomes o Site selection and inspection: must become familiar with the site on many levels to ensure you have adequate registration areas, hotel accommodations, food service capabilities, restrooms, and utilities o Designing the event environment: design must meet client’s needs, registrants’ needs, and budget o Financial management: keep tight control of money to be successful o Training staff and volunteers: volunteers often lack specific skills or knowledge o Scheduling: client likely to take part o Catering: food is often the highlight of any meeting or event, and knowing what your clientele wants if very important o Marketing: events successful only if marking and promotion is in place o Finding sponsorship: critical to an event’s success o Legal, ethical, and risk management: need to know how to read contracts and apply risk management techniques to ensure attendees are safe from harm Lecture 8 (March 6) - Event sector is very diverse and not recognized as an industry by Statistics Canada - Promotes use of other tourism services - Festivals and events can be: o Fresh and authentic o Packaged and sanitized o Community celebrations or tourist traps o Professionally run or volunteer o New or decades old  Over time, it gets to b stable and needs to be reinvented o Public, not-for-profit, or profit-oriented - Festivals: heritage, entertainment o Ex. Essex County Gas and Steam Engine Show o Ex. Windsor Busker Festival - Festivals: Spontaneous, Planned o Ex. Buzzard Festival – spontaneous but returns every year o Ex. Dickens on the Strand – planned to bring people to go to Galveston during the off season - Festivals: Arts, Civic o Ex. Stratford Shakespearean Festival o Ex. Southwest Michigan – 4 of July o Swan Parade – trying to do something to broaden out the appeal - Festivals: Food, Sport o Ex. KW Oktoberfest o Ex. Montreal Indy Event Characteristics - Open to the public but private corporate functions are also called “special events” o Not necessarily free o If limited to people in the company, they are called special events - Celebration or display of specific theme - Takes place annually or less frequently o “Festivals and events” are usually applied to events that happen annually or less than annually - Fixed opening and closing dates o You know when it starts and ends and have to go in between those dates o This excludes professionally hockey, basketball, etc. - No permanent structures (debated) o Some people say they’re special and shouldn’t have any permanent structures o But it may be a building that is not owned by the festival - Usually multiple activities - All activities take place in the same area (but can be in a broad area) o Ex. World Cup Event Typology - Mega event: connotes “big”, but not precisely defined o Often implies worldwide publicity o High levels of media attention - Hallmark events: no standard definition o Usually refers to an event that marks or brands a destination o People think of the destination and think of that event because of it o Ex. Mardi Gras in New Orleans or Stratford Shakespearean Festival - Classified by Scale – can have events/celebrations that aren’t clear to where they fall o Local – UW Canada day o Regional – Waterloo Buskers o Provincial - Oktoberfest o National – Canada Summer/Winter Games o International – Olympics - Classified by organizer o Public agency – Waterloo Uptown Jazz o Volunteer – Elmira Maple Syrup Festival o For-Profit – Festivals of Festivals o Private companies (public relations) - Main Themes in Ontario o Music – 21% o Recreation – 17% o Creative Arts – 4% o Food – 18% o Entertainment – 9% o Education – 2% o Culture -17% o History – 6% o Other – 7% Roles of Festivals and Events - As an attraction, it expands season and spreads geographic reach of tourism - As an animator, it attracts people for the first time to the site and business as well as encouraging repeat visits - As an image-maker, it has hallmark events and gives the destination a theme or brand o Makes a brand o Ex. TIFF and Oktoberfest o Smaller events can also help with the image of the place - As a development catalyst, it gives urban renewal and infrastructure as well as economic and business development (ex.
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