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REC280 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Canadian War Museum, National Parks Of Canada, Adventure Travel

Recreation and Leisure Studies
Course Code
Stephen Smith
Study Guide

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Chapter 7 Attractions
- Choosing location of vacation depends on many things but entertainment value of destination is critical
- Much of Canada’s attraction for tourists lie in natural resources (mountains, lakes, rivers, oceans, and forest and wildlife)
but also depend on artificial attractions
- Attractions generate overall income of $16.2 billion in 2006 for tourism sector
- Three separate areas of tourist activity: attractions, events, and adventure tourism/outdoor recreation
- Attraction: consists of permanent sites/facilities that are always available to a tourist
- Permanent facilities allow tourists to visit at all times (not necessarily just in the summer)
- Events: created by a destination in order to attract specific target markets at specific times
o Ex. Caribana
- Adventure tourism and outdoor recreation: tourists want to be physically active and enjoy the outdoors
- Large groupings of attractions divided into: natural attractions, cultural attractions, attractions that entertain
- Criteria to include when designing an attraction:
o Determining the sustainability of the attraction: how many people can you bring on a daily/yearly basis
without doing irreparable damage?
o Identifying target markets: facilities to accommodate visitors need to reflect needs and expectations of visitors
o Determining visitor flow patterns: determining where patrons enter and pay, identifying the areas where they
tend to spend more time, and providing good signage to guide people
o Training of workers and management of facility: do you use workers who have an understanding of the site
and its background?
- Natural attractions depend on what the country’s landscape offers to the visitor
- 40 years ago, prospective visitors viewed history of Canada as new and felt that we had little culture to promote
compared to ancient Orient of Europe
o World is now taking notice of First Nations and Inuit people (original habitants)
- Attractions are usually the reason why people travel
- Attractions may be primary destination or only one component of a larger vacation
- Theme parks, museums, zoos, casinos, and Broadway-style theatres are a few attractions found around the world
- Attractions differ in types and ownerships
o Can be privately owned and operated, non-profit, or publically owned
Public and Non-Profit Cultural Attractions
- Governments own and operate public attractions (taxes usually source of funding)
- Governments cut budgets so money for upkeep and enhancement lowered
- Public attractions now charging entrance fees and are bringing in special events of shows to boost ticket sales and get
more revenue
o Also raise revenue from food and beverage service
- Non-profit attractions are not in business of making a profit and any revenue earned is funnelled back into the attraction
- Some attractions start as public attractions but are no longer funded by the government
o Ex. The Log Farm in Ottawa used as living history site, to show tourists and local residents the farming
methods of early 19th century
o Government took away funding and now exists on revenue received from grants, donations, membership
feeds, and special events such as the sugaring festival
- Some non-profit attractions are started by wealthy philanthropists who amass a collection on the subject of their
passion and then provide funds to house and maintain the collection
o Admission fees and sales of souvenir items often bring in revenue for non-profit attractions
- Museum: historical, scientific, or artistic displays
o Usually sponsored by government or non-profit organizations but some are commercial for-profit enterprises
and few are privately owned
- Most museums have a permanent area that displays the same exhibit at all times but another usually houses a
succession of travelling shows to keep local people going to museum
- Museum has a director, various assistants, and volunteers
o Director responsible for searching for new displays, scheduling travelling shows, obtaining permanent displays
for the museum, and completing paperwork (budgeting and payroll)
o Board of directors responsible for hiring and guiding the director (often elected from membership of museum)
o Board and director decide on themes for upcoming year, special events, and marketing ideas
- Art Museums: once primarily cultural centers in metropolitan areas sophisticated tastes gathered to express opinions
about the works of a particular artist
o Young artists usually start from displaying their work in small galleries, which support the local art museum

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o Support collected from displaying and advertising work of local artists
o Starting with young allows museum to maintain citizen’s lifelong support
- Historical museums: more likely than art/scientific museums in small communities
o Presents relics, along with written explanation of pieces and sometimes struggle to maintain an uncluttered
- Living history museums: people in period costumes to portray historical figures and times
o Successful because they are fun and educational and provide jobs to local people and bring tourists dollars to
- Modern museums allow displays that can be touched and have interactive computers to engage user with
o Ex. Canadian War Museum illustrates dreadful conditions and pays homage to its casualties with various
interactive activities to bring war to life for visitors to hear what it was like during WWI
Provide a balance of “real life” and simulated experience to educate visitor
- Scientific museums: range from dinosaur bones to spaceships; tend to show a process
- Site-specific: located where the scientific event took place
o Small communities that claim a scientific history can easily create a museum in honour of the person, animal, or
- Children’s museum: allows young children to experiment with various scientific discoveries
o Provide hands of experience and encouraged to learn while having fun
- Historic sites: located in every country that has taken initiative to commemorate them
o United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has placed several Canadian
national parks and historic sites on their list of World Heritage Sites in recognition of outstanding universal
value of the area
o L’Anse aux Meadows (in Newfoundland) commemorates arrival of first Europeans in North America 1000 years
o PEI’s Province House is considered to be the birthplace of Confederation
o Quebec City is Canada’s oldest city and walled with narrow cobblestone streets and ancient greystone houses,
churches, and old stone fort with massive gates and cannons
o Tourists who visit Manitoba visit the site of the last rebellion that was led by Louis Riel and his band of Métis
o Saskatchewan has more museums per capita and history of RCMP comes alive at training headquarters
o Alberta has the Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, where aboriginal tribes of Northwest killed buffalo by driving
them off high cliffs
o BC have Aboriginal people working with cultural ecologists to reconstruct their history
- Heritage/Cultural Tourism: immersion in the natural history, human heritage, arts, philosophy, and institutions of
another region or country
o Heritage is our past what we have received from our ancestors and what we pass on to future generations
o Need experienced, knowledgeable guides to be part of the learning process
o Typical heritage tourists are between ages 45-64 and are better educated and have higher income than average
They are willing to spend more money on their vacations
- Zoos and Aquariums are mix of both public and private operations
o Attractions exhibit animals in enclosed areas or in a natural habitat where they can roam free
Zoos are comfortable natural settings for breeding rare and endangered species
Most zoo animals are healthier than they would be in their wild state
Zoos should be educational but the visitor learns without effort because displays are alive
Sometimes hosts hourly shows with animals
The more people get involved with the animals, the longer the people will stay, the more they will
learn, and more they will spend
o Aquariums: found inland and exhibit fresh and saltwater fish
o Oceanariums: located on the ocean coast and may include large fish such as sharks, seals, otters, dolphins, and
other aquatic life
Present special shows with trained dolphins, sea lions, or seals
Private Commercial Attractions that Entertain
- Private attractions rely on admission fees, food and beverage sales, merchandising, parking charges, and special even
- Admission fees are often higher than public-sponsored attractions
- Private attractions can make quick decisions and adapt faster to markets

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o Most private attractions are tourist draws and are considered one component of a larger vacation trip
- Theme park: concept widely attributed to Walt Disney
o Oriented to a particular subject or historical area and combine costuming and architecture with entertainment
and merchandise to create a fantasy atmosphere
o Disneyland was to have all the virtues of an amusement park with none of the flaws
o Tourism tends to combine categories or activities to increase number of target markets that it attracts
o Theme parks have developed into large-scale operations that have sophisticated computers controlling rides
and animated entertainment
o Water theme parks are becoming more attractive to all ages
o Success of theme parks built on permission grated to children and adults to forget trials and tribulations of the
real world and escape momentarily
- Amusement parks: family entertainment centres with rides
o Need to provide interactive computer games in a specially designed room
o Also need to provide new, exciting rides,, or a new form of entertainment each year to bring back local clientele
o Features live entertainment throughout the day, showcasing local and regional entertainers
o Nationally known entertainers are brought in to boost attendance during summer
o Largest expenditure goes to labour
- Live entertainment: need to be promoted in tourist brochures
o Some communities thrive because of live entertainment available to audiences
o Ex. Tennesse (Grand Ole Opry) - dependent on country singers and dancers
- Gaming: gambling is a popular and controversial form of recreation
o Four types of gambling: pari-mutuel wagering, lotteries, non-profit organization gambling, and casinos
o Casino gambling: includes slot machines roulette, craps (dice), Baccarat, blackjack, and other games of chance
Not all communities welcome gambling
o Pari-mutuel gambling: betting pool in which those who bet on the winners of the first three places share the
stakes of the losers (minus a percentage for management)
People dine in food facilities at the track and watch
Ex. Kentucky Derby
Excitement is betting in the atmosphere of the racetrack
- Shopping is popular with tourists and has become an annual or monthly event for families
o Mega-malls: huge shopping and entertainment centres with retail stores and restaurants to indoor theme
parks, game rooms, and small theatres (ex. West Edmonton Mall)
o Historic marketplaces are often located in historic part of a city’s waterfront, remodelled to suit small
boutiques, fresh produce outlets, and food service facilities
o Charter buses and tours will make a point to stop at shopping areas such as mega malls, waterfront shops, or
factory outlets
o Shopping proven to be a financial boon for the entire region and provide travellers with an added site to visit
Lecture 7 (February 27)
- Distribution across the provinces and territories seem to be similar to previous things
- Percentage of tourism firms that belong to recreation/entertainment sector have different patterns
- Accommodation for Yukon/NWT has high concentration because of liquor laws
- In recreation and entertainment, you see little variation but the most significantly different provinces are New
Brunswick and PEI with over 1/5 of tourism businesses falling into this category
o PEI is odd one out because of Anne of Green Gables and has created a large industry and shapes the PEI
economy and is associated well with tourism
- This isn’t just PURE tourism – locals will also go to these destinations
- People are buying experiences and not something tangible
- Firms in this sector are small and are dominated by young boys and the work patterns are mixed but part time, part year
seems to be dominant
- The guys are well educated and are dominated by people in university
Importance of Attractions
- Arguably the most important component in tourism
- Main motivators for main trips; core of product
- Without attractions, demand for other tourism services would be much smaller
- Attraction doesn’t make the most money out of all tourism sectors but generates the demand that makes tourism
Definitions of Attractions
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