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RS110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Pelagianism, Satisfaction Theory Of Atonement, Mary Carpenter

Religious Studies
Course Code
Peter Frick
Study Guide

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20 multiple choice
2 essay questions  obvious questions
4 jewish groups
Thomas Aquinas – summa Theologica (wrote this book) He was known as the “doctor”.
Aristotelian theologian, theology is a scientific argument, first philosopher to look for God,
synthesis of philosophy (reason) and theology (revelation) – unity of truth, the five ways of
Thomas Aquinas
1. Unmoved mover  everything that exists must have an origin, Aristotle
2. Cause-effect  everything that causes something, brings something else into existence
3. Contingent (dependent)/ necessary existence  Everything created is contingent beings, only
non-contingent, necessary being is the unmoved mover
4. Gradation  Platonic, relative comparisons (usually of moral qualities), God is the highest
gradation of divine attributes
5. Teleological argument  end/ purpose. Everything in existence has a specific place/purpose in
the overall scheme of creation. No element of a purposeless created thing. Everything and
everyone has a purpose
Christian Mystics  emotions, experience, feelings
(all 3 religions had developed mystic traditions at the same time)
-Meister Eckhart: He was a Dominican (seeking clarification in terms of the doctrine) As a
mystic, you forfeit your own individuality and by doing this, you gain reality of God. You do this
by negating yourself in poverty, silence and contemplation
-Hildehard of Bingen: She was a nun, gifted in writing music poetry and consulted by politicians,
had heavenly visions seeing an aspect of God, wrote Know the Ways of God (Scivias)
-Catherine of Siena: She was a Dominican lay person, they were not married but had a mystical
marriage with God, helped victims of the Black Death, involved in social justice
-Julian of Norwich: She had constant, long visions of God, wrote Sixteen Revelations of Divine
Love, She said evil helps us understand our love, we understand something better because we
can see its opposite
-Teresa of Avila: nun, had visions, mystical marriage to God, wrote The Interior Castle she wrote
there was a crystal mansion and when you move to the centre where the light was most
beautifully refracted, just like if you move to the centre of your life, Christ’s light would shine on
(usually women for mystics)
Monastic Orders
All males and females  monks and nuns
Vows: Poverty, Chastity, Obedience (celibacy)
Orders  Benedictine, Franciscans, Dominicans (communities with monastic orders)
Benedictine Order (founder = benedict, his sister founded a women’s order) Famous for writing
Rules of Faith to regulate a monk’s entire life
Clunic Fathers (founder=duke William the Pious in France) built more thatn 300 monastic
homes, extravagance
Cisterians (founder= Robert of Molesmes) practiced silence, simplicity of life
Mendicant Orders known as beggers (known as friars) Two needs: poverty, intellectualism (men
and women!!!)

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Franciscans (francis of assisi) lived as a mendicant, known for his simple sandals, he preached to
the sick, animals, muslims  Francis prayer (peace and love)
Dominicans (founder= dominic guzman) Albigensian dualism (light and darkens)  Thomas
Aquinas (the doctor)
The Apostle Paul
‘Second founder of the Christian tradition’
Oldest account of Jesus
First major hermeneutic (made use of hermeneutics)  chain of sense-making from them to now
Sources: Pauline letters (7), Books of Acts
Historical Paul Saul of Tarsus, was a Jew, read the Septuagint, Spoke Hellenistic Greek as
vernacular, only beginner Hellenistic education because by highschool you needed to be nude
which goes against the Torah, roman citizen, claims to be a Pharisee, Blameless in Torah, family
moved from Tarsus to Jerusalem, Persecuted the Church but had a Christophany (appearance of
Jesus) on the road to Damascus, Apostle (ambassadors) to the gentiles (non-Jews)
What was the insight? That Jesus was the Messiah. This went against the Pharisees.
Paul persecuted the Church but this refers to the Jews! In his mind, he was bringing the stray
Jews to the right path. So when Paul did this, Christianity did not exist  now called messianic
Jews. This was thus an intra-Jewish conflict and not an inter-religious conflict between Judaism
and Christianity.
Paul died before the first gospel was written – (remember Mark in the year 70) in the time when
the Pharisees are still active
Three groups: Jews, Gentiles, Barbarians
Chronology: 33 Jesus’ death, resurrection – 35/36 calling on the Road to Damascus – 46-48 First
Mission Journey – 48/49 Apostolic Council in Jerusalem – 50-52 Second Mission Journey – 54-
56 Third Mission Journey – 60-62 Voyage to Rome – 65 Death in Rome
Pauline Theology
1. Sin: Ontological reality (state) – we are not perfect (the question of being, God being the
highest) creates the separation between God and Humanity. Power over every person.
Result is death. Vertical dimension of Sin. Vs Sins (actions) Sins: the concrete acts of
ethical transgression as the result of sin. Horizontal dimension of sin. The basic problem
in Christian tradition is Sin not Sins. The deeds of sin manifest themselves in all aspects
of existence: physical, psychological, ethical, sexual, relational, social, racial… This is
the human predicament according to Christian tradition. Because of the state, we do
actions, not the other way around. Jesus came to disempower the power of sin (thus sins).
Without sin, we would have no concept of time as we are not aware of the finiteness of
Adam = type of sin/ death  through sin, death came into the world
2. Salvation: Grace-God’s act of overcoming the power of sin in Jesus the Son of God.
Faith-the mental (faith as belief) and concrete appropriation (faith as active love) of
God’s act of grace. Sin is overcome in Jesus, SinS must be confessed, forgiven, and
repaired. Christ-type of life. Salvation is both immanent and eschatological and cosmic.

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Christians were not saved because Jesus died for us. Jesus did not come for sinS, he came
to disempower the enemy of Death. Through the resurrection, dead itself died. Judaism,
salvation is from Torah
3. Redemption: Concrete acts of faith that addres the realm of sins (not sin) . Faith as belief
must lead to faith as acts of love. The redemotion life is the immanent aspect of the
Christian faith. Redemption is a Christian’s life of acts of unconditional love toward all
people in order to bring healing to our lives disrupted by sins (physical, psychological,
ethical, ecological,…)
4. Jesus’ Return (Parousia, greek word meaning coming): The promise of the return of Jesus
Christ to judge all humanity, to realize the kingdom of God, have eternal life
The Christian Liturgical Year
Advent-arrival of coming 4 weeks, refers to coming of Jesus, candles and wreath
Christmas-based on the winter solstice, tree,
Epiphany- more celebrated by the east
Lent- self-reflection, ash Wednesday, period of 40 days
Good Friday- day jesus was crucified by the romans
Easter- most important day in Christian church – jesus’ resurrection from the dead
Pentecost- 50 days after easter, sending of holy spirit into early believers’
Matters of Historical Verification:
4BCE –ca. 30 (33) CE
Bethlehem, migrated to Egypt, Nazareth, Jerusalem (Galilee, Judea)
Romans were rulers during Jesus’ time
Son of Joseph and Mary
Carpenter or stoneworker  why indecision? Greek word Techai could either mean working with
wood or stone
At around 30, became itinerant (person who walks from village to village and taught) preacher
Followers, called disciples (12 disciples) including men and women
Taught message that challenged religious authorities (Pharisees, Sadducees, synagogue) – one
issue being he was friends with social outcasts
Crucified under Pontius Pilate (26-36)
Matters of Faith
Virgin Birth – conception by the Holy Spirit
Divinity – both divine and human
Performed Miracles – healings, exorcisms, raising Lazarus
Resurrection from the Dead
Ascension into Heaven
Promise of His return and judgement (parusia in Greek) – restoration of the universe
Jesus and Judaism
Jesus was a Jew born into a Jewish family and community
Family lived by Torah: circumcised, sacrifices in Jerusalem, Passover (Luke 2)
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