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SCI 205 - FINAL EXAM NOTES Fully comprehensive notes covering everything need to be known for final exam. - Covers chapers 2 to 13

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University of Waterloo
SCI 206
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SCI 205 EXAM NOTES: Chapter 2 The Anatomy of High-Fidelity Systems: Building Blocks of a Sound System: Sound Source Preamplifier Power Amplifier Speakers Summary of Terms: RIAA Equalization Amplifier: A collection of electronic circuits which boosts and equalizes the signal coming from the magnetic Phono cartridges. (Recording Industry Association of America) is found in the preamp/control centre. Chapter 3 Waves and Sound: Frequency = 1/Period Speed = Distance Travelled/Elapsed Time Wavelength x Frequency = Wave Speed Sound Intensity = Summary of Terms: Condensations: regions along a sound wave where the pressure is largest. Also called crests. Rarefactions: Regions along a sound wave where the pressure is the smallest. Also called troughs. Law of Refraction: When sound travels from a low-velocity medium into a higher velocity medium the refracted sound will bend away from the normal. If the sound travels from a higher- velocity medium into a lower-velocity medium, the refracted sound will bend toward the normal. Reverberation: Numerous reflections of sound which arrive close together and cannot be perceived as individual echoes. Reverberation Time: The time required for the reverberated sound to decay to one-millionth of its original level after the speakers have been turned off. Typical reverberation times are between 0.5 and 2.2 seconds. Reverberation Unit: A component that will add reverberation to the sound when connected to an audio system. Ultrasonic: Sound whose frequency lies above the audible range of 20kHz. Chapter 4 Complex Waves and Interference: st Fundamental (1 Harmonic) st nd 1 Overtone (2 Harmonic) 2 Overtone (3 Harmonic) rd th 3 Overtone ( 4 Harmonic) 4 Overtone (5 Harmonic) th th 5 Overtone (6 Harmonic) Summary of Terms: Diffraction: The bending of waves around objects or corners. Fourier Analysis: A method, discovered by Joseph Fourier, that will resolve any complex wave into a sum of simple sine waves which are harmonically related to each other. Timbre: A term which describes the characteristic tonal quality of the sounds emitted by a musical instrument. The timbre of a musical note is governed by the number and relative amplitudes of the harmonics or overtones which are present. Chapter 5: Decibels and You: Summary of Terms: dBW: a unit for measuring the power of an amplifier, in terms of decibels, relative t a reference level of 1 watt. Fletcher-Munson Curves: A series of graphs which characterize the ears sensitivity to various frequencies at different loudness levels. Threshold of Hearing is 0dB Lowest sound produced which can be heard.Chapter 6- Loudspeakers: Parts of A Speaker: The Diaphragm (or cone) The Flexible Edge The Voice Coil The Permanent Magnet % Efficiency = x 100% Summary of Terms: Acoustic Suspension: A loudspeaker design which permits good bass reproduction from a relatively small-sized enclosure. The acoustic suspension systems utilize a floppy, highly compliant cone suspensi
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