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SCI 227
Elisabeth Daub

Bionnette Notes: Module 1: • Margarine Vs Butter: o Margarine is a cheaper butter substitute that was developed by the French chemistry – Hippolyte Mega Mouries o The name was derived from margaric acid: a fatty acid found in animal fat • Natural vs. Synthetic o The most lethal substances occur naturally in the environment. They include: a) Botulinum Toxin A  A polypeptide produced by common microorganisms of food  It is destroyed at high temperatures – one teaspoon would be enough to kil 25% of the worlds population b) Tetanus Toxin  Secreted by Clostridium tatani bacillus  Mechanism: enters body via dirty cuts/punctures. One teasppon of toxin could kill 25% of population in Canada o The deadlist chemical synthezied by chemists is TCDD, which is 100 times less lethal that the naturally occurring tetanus dioxin • The chemistry of the chemical cocktail o This chemical consists of two hazardous compound which include a) Ethyl acetate  This is an irritant to the eyes/skin/thorat/nose  It is primarily used as a solved  Uses include: nail polish remover/paint hardner b) Dimethyl sulfide  is irritant to the eyes/skin. It is highly flammable  it is harmful if swallowed  it has an unpleasant odor/detectable at low concentrations o this chemical is a partial ingredient for the most popular fruit: MANGO. Only a few chemicals in a mango are approved for use as food additives. In fact a synthetic mango manufactured form the same chemicals could not be sold legally as food. • The chemistry of water: o It is essential for life, makes up more than half the mass of the human body, covers 70% of the Earth’s surface, and helps moderate air temperatures • Good or bad chemicals: a) Warfarin  Used for rat poison/ to treat blood clots b) Thalidomide  There are two stereoisomers. 1) one relieves morning sickness in pregnant women 2) the other causes terrible first defects during the first three months of pregnancy  Effective Mechanism for patients with suppressed immune system: can treat mouth ulcers Module 2: Elements • Periodic Table: a) Group 1 metal: akali metals b) group 2 metals : alkaline earth metals c) Group 3-13: transition metal d) Group 17: halogen e) Group 18: noble gases • Chemical Abstracts Service o 80 million known substances, 90 different chemicals, 89 naturally occurring eleents o New element: a) Flerovium (FL) b) Livermorium (Lv) o Previous Newest Element: Copernicium (Cn)  Only a few atoms of Cn have been identifiedinitially  experiments suggest it will be a liquid metal like mercury o First element discovered: Phosphorus (P)  Named for the glowing light it produced when phosphorous vapor combined with oxygen in the air  It has two allotropes: red and white – both based on P4 molecule a) Red P: polymeric  Uses of P: a) Phosphate: bones/teeth b) Artillery/mortar shell c) Igniter in matches d) Phosphate based fertilizer e) White Phosphorus: toxic/ used in war o Abundance of elements  Oxygen: most abundant element in the Earths crust  Hydrogen: the universe is about 75% hydrogen o Hydrogen:  the first element of the period table placed in the group 1 metals. It is hard to place because although it shares some properties with the group 1 metals, it is a gas. Also it can form H+ /H- ions whereas the group1 elements can only form 1+ ions. In fact in some version of the periodic table it is separated from other elements.  The sun consumes hydrogen, coverts it into helium, producing energy in the process  This is the only atom for which the quantum mechanical equation can be solved exactly Other Metals Beryillum (Group 2 metal) Titanium (transition metal) Seaborgium: (Transition Metal) -lightweight, corrosion resistant structural metal -has a low density, is hard/strong -named after Glaenn T. USE: aircraft industry/dental/bone implant -has a high melting point Seaborg- who discovered the 10 elements -is resistant to corrosion -combines with nickel to form alloy: Nitinol – memory metal -is expensive/poisonous -Important compounds USES: a)Titanium dioxide -Highly specialization applications due to strength without weight -bright white/opaque/inert/nontoxic Ex) x-ray tube window, aircraft -USE: pigment in paper/paint/cosmetic.. components b)Titanium nitride -hard/inert/nontoxic USE: film coating for cutting tools: razor blades Fluorine (halogen) Sulfur (Group 8) Noble Gases: -Fluorine is unstable- readily reacts with other substances – glass/steel -the smelliest element -noble gases can form a -compounds are -can be detected at low concentrations variety of compounds stable/useful/prevalent -form the greatest compounds with xenon a) Telfon -acid resistant container -non-stick pans b)NaFl 2- -fluoride tooth paste -)HF -dilute solutins to etch glass Polonium ( Group 8) Americium: Densest Elements: -a radioactive element used in -a radioactive element used in certain types of 1. Osmium antistatic brushes smoke detector 2. Iridium -a spy poisoned to death with this - we do not have to worry about the toxic effect 3. Platinum element because tiny amount are placed in a small button that is protected by a layer of gold Carbon: Graphene: Fullerenes: C60 Carbon Nanotubes buckball -is the star of organic/biochemical -precursor of other -have high surface area molecules. It is going to soon become forms of carbon -uses: the start of inorganic materials as well. -their electronic a)drug delivery properties/conductivity can -Pure forms of carbon include be modified by attaching a)Fullerenes b)carrying molecules graphite/diamond functional groups to them inside tissue for b)carbon diagnostic/sensing/imagi nanotubes ng purposes Uses: c)Graphite hydrogen storage/biosensors Module 3: Green Chemistry • The Chemical Industry: o A manufacturing industry: produces goods for both industrial/consumer use o In Canada the chemical industry is the fourth largest manufacturing industry • Terminology Petrochemicals:  Substances derived from petroleum/natural gas  Provide feedstocks needed to make most of the carbon based molecules Bulk Chemicals/Commodity Chemicals:  Substances manufactured by many companied/produced in large quantities  Little variation from producer to producer/ are inexpensive  Referred to as “workhorses of the chemical industry Ex) ammonia, sulfuric acid Specialty chemicals:  Substances designed for a specific purpose/ manufactured by a limited # of companies  These companies place emphasis on the customer needs/wants/ are expensive Ex) ink, lubricants Fine Chemicals:  Substance uses to manufacture specialty products  Made in small-medium quantities/ very expensive products/specialized markets • Petroleum: o Is a mixture of at least 500 compounds o The mixture if fractionated by distillation: a procedure for separating volatile liquids from one another. This procedure exploits differences in boiling points of the various components. o Only a small fraction of global oil production is used by the chemical industry. The chemical industry uses the byproducts of oil refining/ gasoline production it its benefit. o the needs of the chemical industry could be adequately met by other feedstocks. • Green Chemistry: o First coined in the early 1990s by the United States Environment Proection Agency o Purpose: to promote innovative chemical technologies to reduce/eliminate the use/generation of hazardous substances. o Alternative Term: Sustainable development o Define: meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs. o 12 Green Chemistry Principles: Prevention Atom Economy -develop synthetic methods to maximize -prevent waste from occuring incorporation of all materials used for synthesis of final product Less Hazardous Chemical Synthase Designing Safer Chemicals -design chemicals to work effectively, while -develop synthetic methods that minimizing toxicity reduce/generate substances with little/no toxicity to human health/environment Safer Solvent/Auxiliaries Design for energy efficiency -reduce energy expense/requirements for -don’t use solvent, and if you have use synthetic procedure. Perform method at ambient ones that are harmless T/P Use of Renewable Feed Stocks Reduce Derivatives -do not deplete whenever -derivatization requires additional reagents / technically/economically practicable generate chemicals Catalysis Design for Degradation -should be designed break down into harmless -reduce energy requirement, minimize products that are not persistent waste, increase specificity of reaction Real time analysis for Pollution Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention Prevention -substance/form of a substance in a chemical -analytical methods needs to be process should be chosen to minimize potential developed to allow real time in process chemical accidents – release, explosion, fires monitoring/control prior to formation of hazardous substance • The Best Solvent Is no solvent o Solvents should be avoided however they are still used! This is when reactants are dissolved a reaction occurs faster/more smoothly. A solvent can also improve the selectivity of the reaction, stabilize transient reaction intermediates, and help dissipate heat to prevent formation of a hot spot (temp gradient). • The Green Chemistry Metrics: For evaluating a chemical reaction/process A) Atom Economy Atomic Economics Reactions Vs Non-economic -provides a measure of how many atoms of 1.Atom Economic Reactions = 100% atom economy reactants end up in the final product, rather a)Rearrangeme
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