Module 1: Read your cereal box:
• Food labels:
o Contain nutritional information on : amounts of protein/fat/carbohydrates/vitamin levels
• Triglyceride: The main dietary fat . It is derived from glycerol/3 fatty acids
• 3 types of fatty acids
Saturated Fatty Acids Unsaturated normal fatty acids Trans fat
ex) steric acid Ex) oleic acid Ex) Elaidic Acid
Are bad for you, increase bloodAre good for you, increase hydrogenated trans fats can
chlosterol/LDL cholesterol levels of HDL cholesterol increase unhealthy LDL
cholesterol and lower healthy
solid at room temperature -liquid at room temperature high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
-cis bonds: bent cholesterol..
• Hydrogenation of Fats:
o A process in which the cis double bonds in a normal fatty acid, are replaced by trans
o This is done to make the fats solid at room temperature and increase shelf life.
o Disadvantage of trans fats: can lead to coronary heart disease/high cholesterol
• Polyunsaturated fats:
o Essential fatty acids because we cannot synthesis them
o Provide protection against coronary heart disease/cancer
• Total carbohydrates include: sugars, starch, glycogen, and cellulose
• Starch/glycogen: are slow release carbohydrates, reduce serum triacylglycerol level
• The Basic sugar carbohydrates: are polyhydroxyl aldehydes/ketones
o the number of carbons can range from 37
o main nutritional sugars have 56
o GLUCOSE is the main basic nutritional sugar.
o Some other nutritional sugars include: sucrose, lactose, ismaltose, and maltose
• Sugars cyclize to form structure
o When glucose cyclizes it forms two anomeric structures. The different anomeric
structures effect the properties of polysaccharides formed from glucose.
a) Alpha anomer structure
b) Beta anomer structure
o Polymers of sugars
o Can be homopolymeric.heteropolymeric
o Homopolymeric polysaccharides: polyglucose
Starch, glycogen, cellulose • Carbohydrates are also found on cellular proteins : glycoproteins.
o Example the ABO blood type. Type B has Galactose
HOMOPOLYMERS WITH ALPHA LINKAGES:
• mixture of glucose polymers that plants synthesis as their food reserve.
• Deposited in the cytoplasm of plant cells.
• The insoluble granules are composed of two major sugar polymers
a) Alpha amylose
▯ : 4 alpha linkages are found between the glucose monomers. They give the
polymer a helical shape. The glucose monomers form head to tail linkages.
▯ lso has alpha linkage between the glucose molecules and forms alpha branches as
• Storage polysaccharide of animals. It is in the cytoplasm of animal cells.
• Similar to the structure of amylopectin. The glucose molecules form alpha linkages, as
well as alpha branches. However this strucutre if more highly branched The outcome is a
very efficient/easily metabolized form of glucose.
• This is way glycogen is our most accessible energy source. We rely on it daily.The
Cori Cycle allows us to use/reuse the glucose. It is Fast in the muscle/slow in the liver.
Homopolymers with Blinkages:
• Mixture of glucose molecules are joined together by Blinkages.
• Cellulose is the main component of the plant cell wall.
• Linear polymer: 15000 glucose residues
• The Hydrogen bonded strands of cellulose form sheets with intra/inter molecular
• Are large multilayer structures that are very hard to metabolize
• are polymers of Lamino acids. They are many amino acids linked together
• the R group can by many different organic molecules
• proteins self assemble : can be fibrous or globular
• What do proteins do: form enzymes, transport nutrients, balance ph, increase immunity, build
• Precursors to important coenzymes in metabolism
• Coenzymes: are helper molecules that do things that proteins cannot do such as
a) Detect light Vitamin A
b) Transfer electron pairs – Vitamin B/folic acid
c) Transfer single carbon groups: folic acid Module 2: Prions
• What are prions:
o Prions: are proteinaceous infectious particles. They are misfolded proteins which caused
many Prion Diseases.
Prion Diseases: Spongiform encephalopathies/ Alzheimers/Parkinsons
Disease/Type 2 Diabeties
o PrP: is a prion protein that naturally occurs in the mammalian cell.
The normal form of PrP is called PrP and the infectious form is called PrP
o PrP is structurally well defined
Some studies indicate that PrP could be important for cell differentiation.
However a mouse model with NO genes for PrP is viable.
• Structure of PrP : is an aggregated form of the normal PrP
o It has a high proportion to Bsheet structures in place of the normal alpha helix structure
of PrP C
o The aggregations of these abnormal isoforms form highly structured amyloid fibers
o The amyloid fibers accumulate to form plaques. The end of the fiber act a template onto
which protein molecules may attach, allowing the fiber to grow
The amyloid protein: found in type 2 diabetes : IAPP
o Key Properties: has a high MW/ very insoluble
Makes it difficult to analyze
• Formation of the Aggregate form
o The protein is partially denatured which causes the peptide backbone to be exposed. This
o Two theories on formation of aggregate form:
a) Nucleation polymerization
b) Template assisted polymerization
o The aggregation process is enhanced by the presence of PrP
The ThSC dynamics: Unless PrP is already present, the conversion of PrP
to PrP is very difficult.
• Relation of the PrP to the disease state
o Prions cause neurodegenerative diseases by aggregating extracellular within the central
nervous system/ forming plaques
o They disrupt the normal tissue structure
o They are able to cross the membrane/contribute to neurodegenerative diseases
• Therapies for human prion diseases:
o Some compounds have been develop to treat prion diseases
Module 3: Trans Fat
• Trans fat:
o Unsaturated fats which are uncommon in nature, but can be created artificially o Unlike normal saturated fatty acids, Trans fat have trans double bonds
o Due to the presence of trans double bonds, these fats are used to give products are higher
shelf life, flavor food stability. These fats are solid at room temperate.
• Synthesize of Trans Fat:
o By partially hydrogenation of oils,
o They are made: to increase shelf-life/flavor stability of food
• Metabolism of Fatty Acids:
o Fatty acids are broken down two carbons at a time
o But the trans C=C is not recognized
o Metabolism of trans fats affect normal fat metabolism
• Link between trans fat and cardiovascular disease (CDV):
o The cardiovascular system transports substances throughout the body via blood vessel.
o Lipoproteins carry particles in the blood which carry
a)fatty acids b)cholesterol c) trans fats
• What happens in the CVD?
1. ApoBlipoprotein enter the intima/bind to proteoglycan
2. Undergo various modifications – oxidation/hydrolysis
3. Inflammatory response is initiated due to chemical secretion/altered expression of adhesion
4. The inflammatory signal: leads to recruitment of monocytes which differentiate into
5. Macrophages: internalize the modified proteins resulting in FOAM FORMATION
6. Lesions grow until blood is restrictes
NOTE: mechanism is not clear, but the alter metabolism of macrophages is a problem
Module 4: Antibiotics
• In the ancient times willow bark was used for healing. It is rich is salicylates. However modern
innovation includes the development of therapeutic drugs such as aspirin.
o Paul Elhrich: developed the idea “Magic Bullet
His coworker tested the compound, Salvarsan, which became an important
drug against syphilis.
• Development of Penicilin:
o Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi,
o Alexander Fleming: recognized the antibacterial properties and tried to understand
o Research on Penicillin was slow:
Fleming was able to show that penicillin could kill bacteria in infected wounds.
However others worked to determine the mechanism
Researchers from Oxford Univeristy followed up on Flemings results. They
conducted experiments on mice. The experiments were successful because the
treated mice survived.
• However the funds to continue research during world war II were low.
o Clinical Trials were conducted
Most by Florey
o Improvements in culture methods: synthesized a better strain of Penicillium mold . o In 1945: Florey/Chain/Fleming received the noble prize for pencillin discovery
o 1957: total synthesis of penicillin
• Chemistry of Penicillin:
o The structure was determined by chemical degradation and verified by xray
Revealed: unusual 4 membered ring
• Mechanism of Penicillin:
o Penicillin kills bacteria by interfering with the production of the cell wall
o In bacteria: the cell wall is made of peptidoglycan. Cells are very vulnerable to lysis
when peptidoglycan is broken apart/expanded.