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Midterm

SDS150R Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Menarche, Eleanor Maccoby, Lawrence Kohlberg


Department
Social Development Studies
Course Code
SDS150R
Professor
Peter Hymmen
Study Guide
Midterm

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SDS 150R: Test 2 – Short answer topics
Early childhood development
1. Motor development
Growth and Motor Development
Between 6 and 12 child can add 2-3 inches and 6lbs per year
Improvement of large muscle skills (ride bike, play basketball) and fine motor skills
(drawing, musical instruments)
Girls more rapid in fine motor development as well as in growth
The Brain and Nervous System
First growth spurt for brain (6-8) sensory and motor areas
Second (10-12) in frontal lobes of cerebral cortex
Continued myelinisation
Selective Attention: the ability to focus cognitive activity on the important elements of a
problem or situation.
Association Areas: parts of the brain where sensory, motor and intellectual functions are
linked
Spatial Perception: the ability to identify and act on relationships between objects in
space
Relative Right-Left Orientation: the ability to identify right and left from multiple
perspectives
Spatial Cognition: the ability to infer rules from and make predictions about the
movement objects
2. Theory of mind and factors that influence it
Theory of Mind: a set of ideas constructed by a child or adult to explain other people’s
idea’s beliefs and behavior
Factors that influence:
oLanguage and verbal reasoning
oCognitive skills and abilities
oMake believe play
oSocial interaction
3. Parenting styles (Maccoby and Martin) and outcomes of each
Parenting Styles
Permissive: high in nurturance and low in maturity demands control and communication
oSlightly worse in school, be more aggressive and immature, less likely to take
responsibility, less independent
Authoritarian: low in nurturance and communication but high in demands and maturity
demands
oLess well in school, low self-esteem, less skilled with peers
Authoritative: high in nurturance, maturity demands, control and communication
oHigh self-esteem, independence, more likely to comply with parents requests

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oInductive discipline: parents explain to children why a punished behaviour is
wrong
Uninvolved: low in nurturance, maturity demands, control and communication
oMore impulsive, antisocial, less competent and less achievement oriented in
school
4. Effects of ethnicity and SES on parenting
Parenting depends on the cultural context
Culture is not related to negative outcomes
Good parenting occurs across SES
Lower SES experience more risk factors
5. Types of family structures
Family Structure
Diversity in Two-Parent and Single-Parent Families
Most common living arrangement for children
Single parent households are no more alike than are two parent households
Family Structures and Ethnicity
Single family homes more common among African Americans and Natives because of
births of unmarried women and the fact that they are less likely to get married
Family Structure Effects
Optimum situation for children includes two natural parents
Factors associated with single parenthood such as poverty may help explain its negative
effects
Single parent families, children twice as likely to drop out
Sex-role identities are challenged
Middle childhood development
1. Changing relations with peers through play (Parten)
Relating to Peers Through Play
Children are likely to spend at least some of their time playing alone (solitary play)
14-18 months play together with toys but side by side with different toys (parallel play)
18 months pursue own activities but also engage in spontaneous though short lived social
interactions (associative play)
3-4 years several children work together to accomplish a goal (cooperative play)
Social Skills: a set of behaviours that usually lead to being accepted as a play partner or
friend by peers
True aggression (intentional harm) versus accidental injuries during normal rough-and-
tumble play
2. Behaviour that distinguishes friends from non-friends (“Friendly behaviour”)
Prosocial Behavior and Friendships
Prosocial Behaviour: behaviour intended to help another person
Development of Prosocial Behaviour
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