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SDS150R Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Daniel Goleman, Mental Disorder, Extraversion And Introversion

Social Development Studies
Course Code
Peter Hymmen
Study Guide

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SDS Test 2 Readings: Lifespan Development 4th Edition by Boyd and Bee
Chapters 8, 9, 10
Chapter 8: Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood
Theories of Social and Personality Development
Psychoanalytic Perspectives
Freud: Anal and Phallic stages
o Anal (1-3): toilet training interfered with toddlers need to experience control over
anal functioning, training methods too strict or too permissive lead to personality
o Phallic ( 3-6): Oedipus or Electra complex arises resulting in identification with
same-sex parent, healthy personality development needs both parents in the home
o Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt: toddler’s new mobility and the accompanying
desire for autonomy
o Initiative v. Guilt: new cognitive skills (ability to plan) which accentuates his
wish to take the initiative
Both Theorists: key to healthy development during this period is striking a balance
between the child’s emerging skills and desires for independence and the parent’s need to
protect the child and control the child’s behaviour
Hartup: each child needs experience in different kinds of relationships
o Attachment to someone who has greater knowledge or social power
o Reciprocal relationship with equal knowledge and social power
Social-Cognitive Perspectives
Social-cognitive theory: asserts the social and personality development in early childhood
is related to improvements in the cognitive domain
Person Perception: the ability to classify others according to categories such as age,
gender and race
o Cross-Race effect: individuals are more likely to remember the faces of people of
their own race than those of people of a different race is established by age 5
Social Convention (a rule that serves to regulate behaviour but gas no moral implications)
versus Moral Rules (regulations based on an individual’s or society’s fundamental sense
of right and wrong
Family Relationships and Structure
2-3 still strong attachment to one or more parents but attachment activities are not as
Those who are insecurely attached show more aggression to peers and adults in social
Attachment relationship changes at age four to goal-corrected partnership (Bowlby)
Parenting Styles
Permissive: high in nurturance and low in maturity demands control and communication
o Slightly worse in school, be more aggressive and immature, less likely to take
responsibility, less independent

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Authoritarian: low in nurturance and communication but high in demands and maturity
o Less well in school, low self-esteem, less skilled with peers
Authoritative: high in nurturance, maturity demands, control and communication
o High self-esteem, independence, more likely to comply with parents requests
o Inductive discipline: parents explain to children why a punished behaviour is
Uninvolved: low in nurturance, maturity demands, control and communication
o More impulsive, antisocial, less competent and less achievement oriented in
Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status and Parenting Styles
Authoritative most common amongst Caucasian race and across races most likely in the
middle class
Family Structure
Diversity in Two-Parent and Single-Parent Families
Most common living arrangement for children
Single parent households are no more alike than are two parent households
Family Structures and Ethnicity
Single family homes more common among African Americans and Natives because of
births of unmarried women and the fact that they are less likely to get married
Family Structure Effects
Optimum situation for children includes two natural parents
Factors associated with single parenthood such as poverty may help explain its negative
Single parent families, children twice as likely to drop out
Sex-role identities are challenged
Not a single variable; children affected by many pre-divorce factors
Few years after divorce child shows decline in school grades, more aggressive, defiant
and negative or depressed behaviour
Generally negative effects are more pronounced for boys than girls
Understanding the Effects of Family Structure and Divorce
Single parenthood reduces financial and emotional resources available to the child
Any family transition involves an upheaval
Extended Family: a social network of grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins and so on
Peer Relationships
Relating to Peers Through Play
Children are likely to spend at least some of their time playing alone (solitary play)
14-18 months play together with toys but side by side with different toys (parallel play)

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18 months pursue own activities but also engage in spontaneous though short lived social
interactions (associative play)
3-4 years several children work together to accomplish a goal (cooperative play)
Social Skills: a set of behaviours that usually lead to being accepted as a play partner or
friend by peers
True aggression (intentional harm) versus accidental injuries during normal rough-and-
tumble play
Aggression: behaviour intended to harm another person or object
As verbal skills improve, move away from their physical aggression
Instrumental Aggression: aggression used to gain or damage an object
Hostile Aggression: aggression used to hurt another person or gain an advantage
Aggression always preceded by frustration was always preceded by frustration and that
frustration was always followed by aggression (Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis)
Reinforcement and modeling are important
Most children become less aggressive during preschool years
Aggressive children may shape their environments in order to gain continuing
reinforcement for their behaviour
Highly aggressive children lag behind their peers in understanding others intentions
Prosocial Behavior and Friendships
Prosocial Behaviour: behaviour intended to help another person
Development of Prosocial Behaviour
o Selfless behaviours first become evident in children of about 2 or 3 at the same
time the interest in playing with other children
o Some kinds of prosocial behaviour such as taking turns increase with age
Parental Influences on Prosocial Behaviour
o Parents of altruistic children create a loving and warm family climate
o Prosocial Attributions: positive statements about the underlying cause for helpful
o Parents of altruistic children also look for opportunities for them to do helpful
o Beginning at 18 months children develop preferences for playmates
o Having a friend in early childhood is related to social competence
The Gender Concept and Sex Roles
Explaining Gender Concept and Sex-Role Development
Gender Concept: understanding of gender, gender-related behaviour, and sex roles
Sex Roles: behaviour expected for males and females in a given culture
Psychoanalytic Explanations
o In order to identify with a parent, child must learn and conform to his or her sex-
role concepts
o Children learn both the gender concept and sex roles through the process of
Social-Learning Explanations
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