Test #4 Lecture Notes Includes the notes on the lecture slides and as well as a transcript of what was said in class.

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Sexuality, Marriage, and Family Studies
SMF 101
Catherine Briggs

Families and Stress - What happens to families when there are problems that cause stress how do families adapt to stress? - Alcoholism in the family and how it impacts the system. - Who decides when a problem is a problem? o It is very subjective deciding whether something is a problem is based on beliefs and beliefs, values and norms can change over time. What is seen as a problem in the past might not be seen as a problem in the present. Ex: designation of homosexuality as a problem in the past. How this problem is understood over time changes depending on the changes of values. In the past homosexuality was seen as a problem. Well look at homosexuality to look at how something can be designated as a problem and how the problematic nature can evolve and change over time. Canada and European natures, homosexuality was designated as a problem for a very long time; it was seen as problem by the Roman Catholic and Christian church. In terms of its theology and nature they designated homosexuality as a sin, the type of sexual activity between people of the same sex was a sin because it was unnatural. By the 15 th century the Roman Catholic Church and Christian churches that stemmed from it deemed certain type of sexual acts as natural and unnatural those that were unnatural were sinful. Engaging in sex that wasnt to make children was a sin; any sex that was done in lust was sinful. The only natural way and non-sinful way to have sex is between two heterosexual human beings for making children. Any sex that wasnt for the purpose of having a child was based on lust and that lust was seen as a sin they werent concerned that people were of the same sex were having sex it was that people of the same sex wouldnt be having sex for children and so the only reason would be lust and that lust was seen as a sin. Homosexuality as a Problem - Over the centuries, homosexuality has been seen as a problem for individuals, society and family. - Although the understanding of that problem has changed. th - By the 12 century, homosexuality deemed a sin unnatural acts - By 1500s, sodomy and obscenity laws criminalized homosexuality. o Sodomy = anal intercourse between two men, was criminalized by the early 1500s and was a capital offense (death penalty) by France and Britain and therefore also Canada. o Obscenity laws = things that were seen as offensive, didnt have the death penalty. o If you have enough of society being drawn into the lack of ability to control things like lust, you could bring about the damnation of the entire society. o Having sex for fun and anal sex was seen as a sin and criminal act. - 1800s, combines with concepts of appropriate sexuality. o Victorian era the only form of appropriate sexual expression was between a married man and women mostly for the purpose of having children but they allowed some sex for fun. This makes homosexuality a bigger threat to society because they didnt have sex between a man and women, they were the same sex. o Victorians believed that one who deviated from the norms of society had a fundamental flaw and was seen as intrinsic for the person if you were an immoral person you wouldnt be able to follow the moral rules if you couldnt follow the moral rules, then you had a fundamental flaw. o If you were to engage in same sex times at any time, were immoral and deviant and prone to criminalized behaviour. - Seen as deviant and a threat to family. o If one is deviant then they are problematic in the family medical science was developing. One concept was that men had a limited amount of seed (sperm) and so someone that engaged in unnecessary sexual acts (sodomy, masturbation) was wasting their seed and using their energy and so it would have physical ramifications believed that masturbation could lead to blindness. - Medical and psychological theories develop by the mid 1800s. o Theories would construe homosexuality as a physical or psychological defect of some kids. They recognized homosexuality as a type of person they were homosexual people, not just people who engaged in same sex sex. th - By the mid-20 century, homosexuality was constructed more as a form of mental illness o By 1950s was seen by as a mental illness. th o However by the mid 20 century, the fact that it was a sin was also diminished b/c influence of the church was diminished. o The psychological community gained more influence over society than the church the fact that it was a mental illness was becoming more acceptable and the government decriminalized homosexuality it wasnt a result of campaigning by the GLC and society, instead it was pressure from the medical and psychological community that homosexuality was a mental illness and had to be dealt with by the psychological and medical department rather than the law. - Rather than as criminal or sinful - The gay and lesbian rights movement would challenge this construct. o They had to go against that homosexuality was a problem and that it was caused by mental illness. - Gay pride o To challenge the concept of homosexuality as problematic by society and by individuals. o Oldest LGBTQ communities is GLOW at UW. o Gay pride liberation movement. They challenged the concept that homosexuality was a problem mental illness, or a problem overall. Wanted to show that homosexuality was natural and something that was good they wanted to redefine the homosexuality issue and make challenge the current homosexuality issue. Defining the Problem: - Dominant groups in society who define what is a problem - Gatekeepers: these are people or institutions that have a recognized experience or role in identifying problems and have the authority to label individuals or groups as being the source of a problem. - The dominant group is the one that sets the values and norms. - Social regulation the means why which the norms and values and accepted behaviours of a society are shaped and reinforced. o Can be something as straight forwards as laws or gatekeepers (psychological or medical factors) Family Response to Problems: - ABCX model of response by Reubin Hill. - A is the stressor event. ex: loss of job by primary bread winner is a stressor a stressful event that impacts the family unit. - The impact of the stressor is affected by the familys resources (financial resources family savings, they need money to pay for lawyers, or have money to tie over while the person is looking for a job, knowledge does the family have knowledge or know somebody who is good at job search skills or can access resume building facilities. B factor. - C factor response of family to the stressor is also affected by the way family members view the event. Ex: if you take the case of somebody being charged by a criminal offense the family can feel shame and it can increase the tension of the family or they can feel victimized. These factors come together in complex ways and produce the X-factor. - These factors interact to produce the X factor the crisis. To what extent the family goes into crisis is based on the ABC factors and how the family will find solutions to the problems facing them. Often they need to look for new solutions this is affected by the way they respond to the situation, or their resources. Need to find constructional solutions educating themselves on how to find a job, etc. When the family feels like they are being targeted it can bring the family closer however it isnt a good way to solve the problem. - A family is in crisis when there is an imbalance in the demands placed on the family and their ability to meet those demands. - Family need to find new ways of finding solutions o Functional or Dysfunctional. Alcoholic Family System - Alcohol like any other substance abuse is defined by society, like other social problems. - The acceptance of alcohol use varies among cultures and across time periods. th - In 1800s to early 20 century any alcohol use was seen as a moral flaw and a cause of deviance. They saw drinking any alcohol as a lack of control to control their desires and this inability to control the desire to engage in unmoral acts was seen as a flaw and they were seen
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