SMF 204 Textbook Readings Chap 1, 2, 3, 4

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Sexuality, Marriage, and Family Studies
SMF 204
B J Rye

Readings Required for SMF 204 Exam #1 Chapter 1: What is Human Sexuality? Erotic- arousing sexual feelings or desires Gender- one’s personal, social and logical status as a male or female Gender roles- complex clusters of the ways male and females are expected to behave within a given culture Human sexuality- the ways we experience and express ourselves as sexual beings - sexuality can be a key component of personality development, it’s an important part of identity - biologists inform us about the physiological mechanisms of sexual arousal and response - medical science teaches us about sexually transmitted diseases and the biological bases of sexual dysfunction - psychologists examine how our sexual behaviors and attitudes are shaped by perception, learning, thought, motivation, emotion and personality - sociologists consider the sociocultural contexts of sexual behavior - anthropologists focus on cross-cultural similarities and differences in sexual behavior Values- the beliefs and qualities in life that are deemed important or unimportant, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable - three distinct ethical frameworks: the ethics of divinity, community and autonomy - ethics of divinity (which generally have religious roots) are based on a fundamental belief in a natural law of right and wrong o those who break the law are viewed as sinners - ethics of community are based on what is perceived as the greater good for the community - the ethics of autonomy value the rights and freedoms of individuals o people are allowed to satisfy their own sexual needs, as long as they do not impede the rights of others Principles of Critical Thinking 1) Be skeptical - except no opinion as fact until you have personally weighed the evidence 2) Examine definitions of terms - some statements are true when defined one way but not true when defined another way 3) Examine the assumptions of premises underlying arguments 4) Be cautious in drawing conclusions from evidence 5) Consider alternative interpretations of research evidence 6) Consider the strengths and weaknesses of different perspectives on sexuality, even ones you don’t agree with 7) Don’t oversimplify 8) Don’t overgeneralize - overgeneralizing makes us vulnerable to accepting sterotypes Perspectives on Human Sexuality The Historical Perspective - history tells us whether our sexual behaviors reflet trends that have been with us through the millennia, or are customs of a particular culture and era - history shows how religion has been a major influence on sexual values and behaviors Phallic worship- veneration of the penis as a symbol of generative power Phallic symbol- an object that represents the penis Incest taboo- the prohibition against intercourse with close blood relatives THE ANCIENT HEBREWS - they viewed sex-within marriage as a fulfilling experience intended to satisfy the divine injunction to “be fruitful and multiply” - male-male and female-female sexual behaviors were strongly condemned, because they were thought to threaten perpetuation of the family - adultery for woman was condemned - majority of Hebrews practiced monogamy Polygamy- the practice of having two or more spouses at the same time 1 Monogamy- the practice of having only one spouse - they approved of sex within marriage for mutual pleasure and fulfillment - they believed the expression of sexual needs and desires helped strengthen martial bonds and solidify families - a wife is considered her husband’s property - if she offended him, she could be divorced on a whim - a wife could be stoned to death for adultery - she might also have to share her husband with his secondary wives - men who commit adultery by consorting with the wives of other men were considered to have violated the latter’s property rights - male adulterers were not put to death THE ANCIENT GREEKS - valued family life - greek men admired the well-developed male body and enjoyed nude wresting among men in the arena - the greeks viewed their gods: Zeus Apollo, Aphrodite, and others as voracious seekers of sexual variety - the greeks viewed men and woman as bisexual Bisexual- sexually responsive to either gender - male-male sex was deemed normal and tolerated as long as it did not threaten the institution of the family Pederasty- sexual love between a man and a boy o sex between men and prepubescent boys was illegal but families were generally pleased if their adolescent sons attracted socially prominent mentors Courtesan- a prostitute, especially the mistress of a noble or wealthy man - could play musical instruments, dance, and discuss the latest political crises - they were skilled in the arts of love - no social stigma was attached to visiting a courtesan Concubine- a secondary wife, usually of inferior legal and social status - the woman of Athens had no more legal or political rights than slaves o they were subject of the authority of their male next-of-kin before marriage and of their husband afterwards o they received no formal education and were consigned most of the time to woman’s quarters in their homes THE ANCIENT ROMANS - orgies are amongst the upper class of police society than among average Romans - viewed male-male sexual behavior as a threat to the integrity of the roman family and to the position of the roman woman - the family was viewed as the source of the Roman Empire’s strength - woman are husband’s property THE EARLY CHRISTIANS - Christian leaders bean to associate sexuality with sin - Demanded virginity of their brides - Prostitution was not allowed’ - Christians taught that men should love their wives with restraint, not with passion - Dissolving a marriage might also jeopardize the social structure that supported the Church THE MUSLIMS - Islamic tradition treasures marriage and sexual fulfillment in marriage - Premarital sex invites shame and social condemnation - Men may have 4 wives but woman are only allowed one - Public social interactions between men and woman are severely restricted in conservative Islamic societies - Woman are expected to keep their heads and faces veiled in public nd to avoid all contact with men other than their husbands THE HINDUS 2 - Hindu sexual practices were codified in a ex manual, the Kama Sutra, which illustrated sexual positions - Sex was a religious duty, not a source of shame or guilt - Hindu deities were often portrayed as engaging in same-sex as well as male-female sexual activities THE TAOISTS - sex was a sacred duty- a form of worship that led to harmony with nature and immortality - Chinese culture was the first to produce a detailed sex manual - Man was expected to extend intercourse as long as possible, to absorb more of his wife’s natural essence or yin, which enhanced his own masculine essence, or yang - He was to help bring his partner to orgasm, so as to increased the flow of energy he might absorb - Believed it was wasteful for a man to “spill his seed” - Masturbation was acceptable for woman but not for men THE PROTESTANT REFORMERS - during the reformation, Martin Luther and John Calvin split off from the Roman Catholic Church and formed their own sect - Luther believed priests should be allowed to marry and rear children - to him, marriage was as part of a human nature as eating or drinking - Calvin rejected the Roman Catholic Church’s position that sex in marriage was permissible only for the purpose of procreation o he believed sexual expression in marriage fulfilled other legitimate roles, such as strengthening the marriage bond and helping to relieve the stresses of everyday life THE VICTORIANS - many woman viewed sex as a martial duty, to be performed for procreation and to satisfy their husbands’ cravings - woman were assumed not to experience sexual desires or pleasures - Reverend Sylvester Graham believed that ejaculation deprived men of the “vital fluids” they needed to maintain health and vitality o In his view, intercourse more than once a month could dangerously deplete the man’s vital energies o Recommended that young men control their sexual appetites by a diet of simple foods based on whole-grain flours o He invited Graham cracker for this purpose - Men thought they were doing their wives a flavor by looking elsewhere, to prostitutes THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF SEXUALITY Havelock Ellis complied a encyclopedia of sexuality- a series of volumes published - he argued that sexual desires in woman were natural and healthful - he promoted the idea that many sexual problems had psychological rather than physical causes - argued that homo orientation was a naturally occurring variation within the spectrum of normal sexuality not an aberration - treated homo as inborn dispositions Richard von Kraffti-Ebing described more than 200 case histories of individuals with various sexual deviation - he viewed sexual deviation as mental diseases that could be studied and perhaps treated by medical science Sigmund Freud believed sex drive was our principal motivating force Alfred Kinsey conducted the first large-scale studies of sexual behavior in 1930-1940s - asked to teach a course on marriage - his books became bestseller but they still refuse to publish his work in newspapers, etc - he helped make sex a research of field of study Sexologist- a scientist who studies sexual behavior THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION 3 - mid 1960-1970s is the sexual revolution - dramatic changes occurred in sexual attitudes and practices during the “swinging sixties” - the pill was created and permitted young people to have sex GAY ACTIVISM - gay people built social institutions to tackle the problem of AIDS - the motto, “silence equals death” THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE - focuses on the roles of genes, hormones, the nervous system, and other physiological factors in human sexuality - biology teaches us that erection occurs when the penis becomes engorged with blood - orgasm is a spinal reflex as well as psychological event THE EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE - suggests that social behaviors that enhance reproductive success may be subject to natural selection Evolution- the development of a species by means of many small, cumulative adaptions to its environment Natural selection- the evolutionary process by which adaptive traits enable members of a species to survive long enough to reproduce and transmit these traits to their offspring Charles Darwin believed that animals and plants were evolved from other life forms - according to his theory, the mechanism by which species evolve is natural selection - better adapted members are more likely to survive to reproduce and transmit their traits to their offspring - erotic plasticity is the degree to which human sexuality is affected by sociocultural and situational factors Evolutionary psychology- the theory that a disposition toward a behavior pattern that enhances reproductive success may be genetically transmitted THE CROSS- SPECIES PERSPECTIVE - the study of other animal species places human behavior in a broader context Analogue- something that is similar or comparable t something else Copulation- sexual intercourse - foreplay is also in the animal world - sexual behavior among higher mammals such as primates is less directly controlled by instinct than it is among their species, such as birds, etc SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE - provides insight into how cultural beliefs affect sexual behavior and morality - in most cultures, men typically go to business or to the hunt - they are perceived as strong, active, independent and logical - woman are viewed as passive, dependent, nurturing and emotional - men and woman learn to behave in ways that are expected of them within their particular cultures PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE - focus on many psychological influences- perception, learning, motiviation, emotion, personality, etc that affect our sexual behavior and our sexpeirene of ourselves as female or male SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Psychoanalysis- the theory of personality originated by Sigmund, which proposes that human behavior represents the outcome of clashing inner forces - believed that we’re all born with biologically based sex drives - these drives must be channeled through socially approved outlets if family and social life are to carry on without undue conflict - proposed that the mind operates on conscious and unconscious levels - conscious level corresponds to our state of current awareness - unconscious mind consists of the darker reaches of the mind that lie outside of our direct awareness - the ego shields the conscious mind from awareness of our baser sexual and aggressive urges, using defense mechanisms, such as repression, the motivation forgetting of traumatic experiences Unconscious mind- those parts or contents of the mind that lie outside of conscious awareness Ego- In psychoanalytic theory, the part of the mind that mediates between the id and the superego and that deals with external reality 4 Defense mechanisms- is psychoanalytic theory, automatic processes that protect the ego from anxiety by disguising or ejecting unacceptable ideas and urges Repression- the automatic ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas from consciousness Erogenous zones- parts of the body including but not limited to the sex organs, that are responsive to sexual stimulation - he believed that the suckling of the infant in the oral stage is an erotic act - he thinks that children undergo five stages of development named for the predominant erogenous zones of each stage: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital o each stages rise to certain kind of conflicts - he believed it was normal for children to develop erotic feelings towards parents of the other gender during the phallic stage o these urges lead to conflict with the parent of the same gender Fixation- in psychoanalytic theory, arrested development that includes attachment to traits and sexual preferences characteristic of an earlier stage of psychosexual development Oedipus complex- a complex of emotions raised in a young child, especially a boy, by a subconscious sexual desire for the parent of the opposite gender LEARNING THERY Behaviorists- learning theorists who argue that a scientific approach to understanding behavior must refer only to observable and measurable behaviors and who emphasize the importance of rewards and punishment in the learning process Coitus- sexual intercourse - children left to explore their bodies will learn what feels good and tend to repeat it - the child who is rewarded for masturbation and premarital intercourse through parental praise and encourage will more likely to repeat thee behaviors then a child in a restrictive culture, who is punished for the same behavior - when sexual behavior feels good but parents connect it with feelings of guilt and shame, the child is placed in conflict, and may vacillate between masturbating and swearing off the practice - if they were severely punished, then they may come to associate sexual stimulation in general with feelings of guilt and anxiety - such early learning experiences can set the stage for sexual dysfunction in adulthood COGNITIVE VIEWS Modelling- acquiring knowledge and skills by observing others Social-cognitive theory- a cognitively oriented learning theory in which observational learning, values and expectations play key roles in determining behavior - views people as decision makers and emphasizes the role of observational learning - focus more on how individuals’ choices are affected by their internal thoughts - children acquire the gender roles through reinforcement o their parents, peers, and other models on TV, etc QUEER THEORY Queer Theory- a theory that challenges heteronormativity and heterosexism - challenges a number of commonly held assumptions about gender and sexuality - argues that the concepts of heterosexuality and homosexuality are social constructs that ignore commonly experienced mismatches among peoples anatomic sex, society’s gender roles and individuals’ sexual desires Chapter 2: Research Methods - scientists and researchers who study human sexuality take an empirical approach, they base their knowledge on research evidence rather than intuition, faith or superstition Empirical- derived from or based on observation and experimentation The Scientific Method 1) Formulating a research question - a scientist formulates a research question on the basis of observation and theory about an event or behavior - conduct empirical research to answer these questions 5 2) Framing the research question in the form of a hypothesis - experiments are taken with a hypothesis in mind- a precise prediction about behavior that is often derived from theory - a hypothesis is tested through research 3) Testing the hypothesis - tests hypothesis through carefully controlled observation and experimentation 4) Drawing conclusions - analyze the results of the test and draw conclusions about whether the hypothesis is correct - if the results of a well-designed research study fail to support a certain hypothesis, the scientist can revise the theory they used served as the framework for the hypothesis - research findings often lead scientists to modify their theories and, in turn, generate new hypotheses that can be tested with further research GOALS OF THE SCIENCE OF HUMAN SEXUALITY - to describe, explain and predict sexual behaviors - the scientific approach to human sexuality examines sexual behaviors through techniques as varied as the field study, the survey, the individual case study and lab experiments - researchers attempt to relate their observations to specific factors, or variables that can help explain the observations - variables that are commonly used to explain sexual behavior are biological, psychological and demographic or sociological Variables- quantities or qualities that vary or that may vary Demographic- concerning the vital statistics of human population (e.g density, race, age, education) Quantitative Research Methods Population- a complete group of organisms or events Sample- part of a population selected for study Generalize- use information from a particular case or sample to draw conclusions about a larger phenomenon or population Representative sample is a research sample of participants who accurately represent the population of interest Sampling Methods - one way of acquiring a representative sample is random sampling - researchers overcome biased sampling by drawing random or stratified random samples of populations - the refusal of people who have been randomly selected to participate in the survey can ruin the representativeness of the sample Random sample- a sample in which every member of a population has an equal chance of participating Stratified random sample- a random sample in which known subgroups of a population are represented in proportion to their numbers within the population Volunteer bias- a slanting of research data caused by the characteristics of individuals who volunteer to participate METHODS OF OBSERVATION The Case Study Method Case study- a carefully drawn, in-depth biography of an individual or a small group of individuals. This information may be obtained through interviews, questionnaires, and historical records - the focus is on understanding one or several individuals as fully as possible by unraveling the interplay of various factors in the individuals’ or group’s background The Survey Method Survey- a detailed study of a sample obtained through such methods as interviews and questionnaires - surveys typically gather information about behavior through questionnaires or interviews - researchers may interview or have questionnaires to learn about sexual behaviors and attitudes - interviews used by Kinsey allowed face-to-face contact and giving the interview the opportunity to follow up on answers that seem to lead toward useful information - a skilled interviewer may be able to set a respondent at ease and establish a sense of trust - anonymity may encourage respondents to disclose intimate information Large- Scale Canadian and American Studies THE KINSEY REPORTS 6 - Alfred Kinsey interviewed 5300 and 5940 woman in the US between 1938-1949, asked them a bunch of questions about various types of sexual experience, before, during and outside of marriage - He adopted a group sampling approach and recruited study participants from organizations and community groups - He contacted representatives of groups in diverse communities and tried to persuade them to get their fellow group members to cooperate - His sample did not represent the general population - His sampling contained systemic biases - 37% of the male population reached orgasm at least once through male-male sexual activity was probably too high - he assured that his participants answers were confidential, he trained his interviewers to ask questions in an object, matter-of-fact style - interviewers were trained to hide any emotional reactions their subjects may interpret as disapproving - he checked the reliability of his data by evaluating the consistency of responses given by several hundred interviewees who were re-examined after at least 18 months - their reports of incidence of various sexual activity’s were highly reliable - he realized that consistency of responses across time did not guarantee their validity - many research participants experienced emotional relief by discussing their intimate behaviors that they felt anxious and guilty about - his interviewers’ nonjudgmental responses reassured participants that they were “normal” THE NHSLS STUDY - the national health and social life survey was intended to provide general information about sexual behavior in the US, as well as specific info that might be used to predict and prevent the spread of AIDS - conducted by Edward O. Lauumann - originally to be supported by government funds but they blocked federal financing on the grounds that it was inappropriate for the government to support sex research - the research team obtained private funding, but had to cut back the scope of the project - the researchers sampled households by address in geographic areas, not by name - they sent a letter to each household, describing the study’s purpose and methods, then an interviewer visited each household a week later - the people targeted were assured that the purpose of the study were important and their identities would be kept confidential - $100 were offered for cooperating - a high completion rate of close to 80% was achieved this way THE CANADIAN YOUTH, SEXUAL HEALTH, AND HIV/AIDS STUDIES - focused on the sexual health of Canadian adolescents - Canada Youth and AIDS study and Canadian Youth, Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS study - The main objective of these studies was to understand the determinants of adolescent sexuality and sexual health for different age groups - Involving students grade 7-9-11 from all provinces except Nunavut, across Canada and funded by health Canada THE CANADIAN COMMUNITY HEALTH SURVEY - conducted by statistics Canada over one-two year cycles - the aim of the survey is to provide data on the health status of Canadians who are aged 12 + - the sample size for each cycle of the survey is more than 100, 000 - questions about sexual identity, age of first intercourse, # of sexual partners prior 12 months and condom use at last intercourse - they are the key source of data about sexual behavior and condom use among Canadian youth THE CANADIAN CONTRACEPTION STUDIES - 4 national surveys on contraceptive use were sponsored by the pharmaceutical company Janssen-Ortho - sampled 15-44 year old woman across Canada questionnaires mailed out, 1582/3345 returned - the survey looked at contraception awareness, attitudes and behaviors among a representative sample of Canadian woman of childbearing age 7 - included questions of sexual behaviors - one unique features is that they also asked whether participants had experienced sexual difficulties THE COMPAS SURVEY - conducted one of the more comprehensive national surveys about relationships and sexuality - 1479 respondents to this survey - asked about sexual orientation, age of first intercourse, # of sex partners, sexual frequency, oral sex, sex community, sexual problems, sex and the workplace, attitudes towards casual sex and attitudes toward toplessness and prostitution - the highest non-response rate was for the question on oral sex, 15% females and 5% male didn’t answer Social desirability- a response bias caused by a subject’s tendency to provide a socially acceptable answer to a questionnaire or interview question The Naturalistic Observation Method Naturalistic observation- a study method in which organisms are observed in their natural environment o also called field study, scientists directly observe behavior where it happens The Ethnographic Observation Method Ethnographic observation- a study method in which behaviors and customs are observed within a group’s native environment - provides data about sexual behaviors and customs within various ethnic groups - anthropologists typically engage in ethnographic research - ethnographic observation has its limit for the study of sexual behavior b/c sexual activities are mostly performed in private - they may have to rely on indirect methods such as interviewing The Participant Observation Method Participant observation- a study method in which observers interact with their subjects as they collect data - male-male sexual behavior and mate swapping has been studied this way The Focus Group Method - focus group research involves bringing together a group of people to determine their attitudes regarding a specific topic - the researcher guides the discussion by asking questions that are general in nature, with the intent of encouraging interaction and the free flow of ideas The Laboratory Observation Method - William. H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson was the first scientists to report direct laboratory observations of individuals and couples engaged in sexual acts - The married couples engaged in intercourse and other forms of mutual stimulation - The unmarried people participated in studies that did not require intercourse, such as measurement of female sexual arousal in response to the insertion of a penis-shaped probe, etc - Their methods offered the first reliable set of data on what happens to the body during sexual response - Their instruments permitted them to directly measure vasocongestion (blood flow to the genitals), myotonia (muscle tension) and other physiological responses Vasocongestion- congestion resulting from the flow of blood - using a transparent artificial penis outfitted with photographic equipment, they were able to study changes in woman’s internal sex organs as the woman became aroused - they observed that sexual response can be divided into four stages, which they called the sexual response cycle - the concern with their approach is that people may not respond publicly the same way they do in private Correlation Correlation- a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables Correlation coefficient- a statistic that expresses the strength and direction (positive or negative) of the relationship between two variables - correlational research describes the relationship between variables - in a correlational study, two or more variables are related, or linked, to one another by statistical means - two variables are positively correlated if one increases as the other increases, or one decreases as the other decreases 8 - a negative correlation occurs when an opposite relationship exists, such as when one variable increases and the other decreases THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD - best method for studying cause-and-effect relationships b/c they are able to manipulate the factors or variables of interest and observe the effects of this manipulation Experiment- a scientific method that seeks to confirm cause-and-effect relationships by manipulating independents variables and observing their effects on dependent variables Treatment- an experimental intervention (such as a test, drug, or sex education program) that’s administered to participants so its effects can be observed - in an experiment, the variable (treatment) that’s hypothesized to have a causal effect is manipulated or controlled by the researcher Independent variable- a condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so its effects can be observed Dependent variable- the condition in a scientific study that is believed to be affected by the independent variable(s). The results of the study are assessed by measuring changes in the dependent variable Experimental group- a group of study participants who receive the experimental treatment Control group- a group of study participants who do not receive the experimental treatment. All other conditions are kept the same for the control group as for the experimental group Selection factor- a research bias that may operate when people are allowed to determine whether they will receive an experimental treatment - participants are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups - experimental group receive the treatment and participants in the control group do not John M. W. Bradford and Anna Pawlak conducted an experiment to determine the effectiveness of cyproterone acetate (CPA), an antiandrogen, in treating men convicted of sex crimes - 19 men were assigned randomly to receive the CPA or placebo for three months - the study was double blind, neither men or the researchers who administered the drugs knew which of the men were receiving CPA and which the placebo o this eliminates the possibility that the researchers’ own biases will distort their feelings - the CPA drug was associate with a significant reduction in aspects of sexual behavior QUALITITVE RESEARCH METHODS Quantitative methodology- the collection of numerical data (e.g percentages) to produce statistics - well suited to testing hypotheses and providing research findings that are generalizable to larger populations - most large-scale sexuality studies employ a quantitative methodology - study participants fill out questionnaires of multiple choice questions - researchers determine what %age of the sample has chosen each of the responses available for each question - findings from this study is presented as statistics Qualitative methodology- the use of interviews, focus groups, desires or other methods to record people’s attitudes and experiences - uses interviews, focus groups, diaries, etc that allows participants to express their thoughts, feelings, emotions and opinions in their own words and in more detail - qualitative research can increase our understanding of sexuality in ways quantitative methods can’t - are well suited in revealing the way individuals experience their sexuality in more detail Ethnics in Sex Research - sex researchers are required to protect the people they study - ensure that they do it on their own free will and are not subjected to physical or psychological harm Ethnical Issues Exposing participants to harm - individuals may be harmed if they’re exposed to pain or placed in stressful situations Confidentiality - they can make questionnaires anonymous - they can withhold subjects’ identities from interviewers - researchers can destroy the participants records once their research is done 9 Informed consent- agreement to participate in research after receiving adequate information about the purposes and nature of the study and about its potential risks and benefits - participants are free to withdraw at any time without penalty The use of deception - ethnical conflicts may emerge when experimenters require that participants not know about their purposes and methods Chapter 3: Female and Male Anatomy and Physiology - only woman possess a sex organ- the clitoris which is devoted to producing pleasurable sensation The External Female Sex Organs Vulva- the external sexual structures of the female - the vulva consists of the mons veneris, the labia majora, and labia minors (major lips and minor lips), the clitoris, and the vagina opening Mons veneris- a mound of fatty tissue that covers the pubic bone (the joining of the pelvic bones at the front of the body, below the abdomen and above the clitoris). - is also known as the mons pubis or simply the mons - at puberty the mons verneris becomes covered with pubic hair - the mons cushions a woman’s body during sexual intercourse, protecting her and her partner from pressure against the pubic bone caused by thrusting motions Labia majora- large folds of skin that run downward from the mons along the sides of the vulva - when close together, the labia majora shield the labia minora and the urethral and vaginal openings - the outer surfaces of labia majora, next to the thighs are covered with public hair - they’re darker than the skin of the thighs and the labia minora - the inner surface of the labia majora are hairless and lighter in color Labia minora- hairless, light-colored membranes located between the labia majora - surrounded the urethral and vaginal openings - the outer surface of the labia minora merge with the major lips - at the top they join at the prepuce (hood) of the clitoris - highly sensitive to sexual stimulation - when stimulated, they darken and swell, indicating engorgement with blood Clitoris- a female sex organ consisting of a shaft and a glans, located above the urethral opening. It’s extremely sensitive to sexual sensation - most sensitive to sexual sensation - it slopes upward in the shaft and forms a mound of spongey tissue at the glans - the body of the clitoris, termed the clitoral shaft is about 2.5 cm long and 0.5 cm wide - consists of erectile tissue, which contains two spongy masses called corpora cavernosa (“cavernous bodies”), hat become engorged (filled wih blood_ and erect in response to sexual stimulation - the clitoral shaft is covered by the prepuce (meaning “before a swelling”, or hood, a sheath of skin formed by the upper part of the labia minora Corpora cavernosa- masses of spongy tissue in the clitoral shaft that become engorged with blood and stiffen in response to sexual stimulation Prepuce- the fold of skin covering the glans of the clitoris - the clitoral glans is a smooth, round knob or lump of tissue o resembles a button and is above the urethral opening o may be covered by the clitoral hood o highly sensitive to touch b/c of its rich supply of nerve endings - the glans, hood and shaft of the clitoris are visible from the outside - the clitoris was ranked highest to where it gave them sexual pleasre, then area around the vaginal opening, the sides of the clitoris, the area below the clitoris, the area above the clitoris, the labia majora and the area around the anus - the clitoris and the penis develop from the same embryonic tissue which makes them similar in structure or homologus Homologous- similar in structure; developing from the same embryonic tissue Analogous- similar in function 10 - the vestibule refers to the area within the labia minora that contains the openings to the vagina and the urethra Urethral Opening- the opening through which urine passes from the female’s body - it is connected by a short tube called the urethra to the bladder, where urine collects - it lies behind the clitoral glans and in front of the vaginal opening Cystitis- is a bladder inflammation of the urinary bladder - primary symptoms are burning and frequent urination (urinary urgency) - pus or blood is common - untreated cystitis can lead to serious kidney infection - honeymoon cystitis is caused by the tugging on the bladder and urethral wall that occurs during vaginal intercourse The Vagina Opening Introitus- the vagina opening - lies behind the smaller urethral opening - across the vaginal opening is a fold of tissue called hymen Hymen- a fold of tissue across the vagina opening that’s usually present at birth and remains at least partly intact until a woman engages in sexual intercourse o also called the maidenhead - some females are born with incomplete hymens or accidently torn - hymen consists of tough fibrous tissue - an imperforate hymen may not be discovered until after puberty, when menstrual discharges begin to accumulate in the vagina Perineum- the skin and underlying tissue that lies between the vaginal opening and the anus o rich in nerve endings, stimulating this area may heighten sexual arousal Episiotomy- a surgical incision in the perineum that may be made during childbirth, to protect the vagina from tearing STRUCTURES THAT UNDERLIE THE EXTERNAL SEX ORGANS - the vestibular bulbs and Bartholin’s glands are active during sexual arousal and are found on both sides Sphincters- ring-shaped muscles that surround body openings also found on both sides, which they open or close by expanding or contracting Crura- anatomic structures resembling legs that attach the clitoris to the public bone - the singular is “crus” - wing-shaped - contains the corpora cavernosa, which engorges with blood and stiffen during sexual arousal Vestibular bulbs- cavernous structures that extend downward along the sides of the introitus and swell during sexual intercourse - attached to the clitoris at the top - blood congests them during sexual arousal, swelling the vulva and lengthening the vagina - this swelling contributes to coital sensation for both partners Vagina- the tubular female sex organ that contains the penis during sexual intercourse and through which a baby is born Bartholin’s glands- glands that lie just inside the minor lips on each side of the vaginal opening and secrete fluid just before orgasm - they secrete a couple of drops of lubrication just before orgasm - this lubrication is not essential for coitus - during sex, the pressure from this engorgement causes moisture from the many small blood vessels that lie in the vagina wall to be forced out and to pass through the vaginal lining, forming the basis of the lubrication Pubococcygeus muscle- the muscle that encircles the entrance to the vagina THE INTERNAL FEMALE SX ORGANS - include the innermost parts of the vagina, the cervix, the uterus and two ovaries, each connected to the uterus by a fallopian tube The Vagina 11 - extends back and up from the vaginal opening - usually 7.5-12.5 cm longs when at rest - the vagina walls have three layers - the inner lining or vaginal mucosa, can be seen by opening the labia minora - the middle layer of the vaginal wall is muscular - the outer or deeper layer is a fibrous covering that connects the vaina to other pelvic structures - the vagina walls are rich with blood vessels but poorly supplied with nerve endings o secrete substances that help maintain the vagina’s normal acidity (pH 4.0-5.0) o taste salty, odor and taste may vary during the menstrual cycle Douche- application of a jet of liquid to the vagina as a rinse Vaginitis- refers to any vaginal inflammation, caused by an infection, birth control pills, etc The G Spot and Female Ejaculation: Sexual Relaities or Gynecological Myths? Grafenberg spot, or G spot is part of the vagina- a bean-shaped area in the anterior (front) wall that may have special erotic significance - lie about 2.5-5 cm from the vaginal entrance to consist of a soft mass of tissue that swells from size of a dime to a loonie when stimulated - stimulation of the spot produces intense erotic sensations and that prolonged stimulation results in a distinct form of orgasm characterized by intense pleasure and ejaculation - some believe this fluid is urine released involuntarily during orgasm - others believe it differs form urine Cervix- the lower end of the uterus - produces secretions that contribute to the chemical balance of the vagina - the opening in the middle of the vagina is called the os, is typically about the width of a straw - sperm passes from the vagina to te uterus through the cervical canal Uterus- the hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ in which a fertilized ovum implant and develops until birth CERVICAL CANCER - decline since the 1970s b/c woman have pap tests regularly - more common among woman who’ve had many sex partners woman who become sexually active at an early age, woman of lower socioeconomic status and woman who smoke - greatest risk factor for cervical cancer is infection by sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) o extremely common and is an infection that doesn’t cause damage - if detected early, most cervical cancer can be treated by surgery and radiotherapy - also be prevented if precancerous changes are detected by a pap test Pap test- examination of a sample of cervical cells for cervical cancer and other abnormalities. Named after the originator of the technique, George Papanicolaou - recommends that once woman become sexually active, they should have pap tests every 1-3 years The Uterus - a uterus or womb is the organ in which a fertilized ovum implants and develops until birth Ovum- egg cell, the plural is ova - the uterus usually slants forward - it has three layers Endometrium- the innermost layer, is richly supplied with blood vessels and glands - its structure varies according to woman’s age and phase of menstrual cycle - endometrial tissue is discharged through the cervix and vagina at menstruation Endometriosis- a condition caused by the growth of endometrial tissue in the abdominal cavity, or elsewhere outside the uterus, and characterized by menstrual pain - if left untreated, it lead to infertility UTERINE/ENDOMETRICAL CANCER - most common form of uterine cancer is cancer of the endometrial lining - for woman who undergo hormone replacement therapy (HRT), combining estrogen with progestin lessens the risk of endometrial cancer - endometrial cancer is symptomized by abnormal uterine staining or bleeding - the most common treatment is surgery 12 HYSTERECTOMY Hysterectomy- surgical removal of the uterus - may be performed when woman develop cancer of the uterus, ovaries, or cervix - a hysterectomy may be partial or complete Complete hysterectomy- surgical removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix and uterus - usually performed to reduce the risk of cancer’s spreading throughout the reproductive system - a partial hysterectomy removes the uterus but not the ovaries and fallopian tubes o sparing the ovaries allows the woman to continue to ovulate and produce adequate quantities of female sex hormones Brotto has conducted a research and a half of those woman reported significant sexual difficulties, he had developed a educational program that is effective in improving the sexual functioning and enjoyment of woman who have had hysterectomies
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