Notes after midterm 2 to last test

26 Pages

Sexuality, Marriage, and Family Studies
Course Code
SMF 204

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After midterm #2: Sex & Gender Hormones Sex (biological) • biochemical substances • 2 effects: activating and organizing • activating: temporary effect o hypothalamus (Gnu RH) o pituitary (gonadotropins: FSH and LH) o gonads – testes and ovaries (sperm testosterone and ovum and follicle = progesterone and estrogen) o pituitary speaks to ovaries/testes • “endogenous” source of testosterone - aka doesn’t have testosterone from its own body – cat is neutered • without that testosterone cat doesn’t have much sex “drive” • give cat shot of testosterone – will start mounting other cats – sex drive comes back • give women shot of testosterone – sex drive will go up • men have a lot of endogenous testosterone – shot may not do anything, may increase a little o similar to heavy vs. light drinkers • organizing effects: sexual differentiation; permanent effect • homologous – (tissue) coming from the same embryonic source • analogous – (tissue/organ) same purpose • prenatally, parinataly, after puberty • undifferentiated could become ovaries or testes – come from same embryonic source – first weeks of gestation(6) they could develop either way – determining factor XX or XY • 12-17 weeks – no testosterone OR testosterone and (MIS) mullerian inhibiting substance • 12-17 – women: wolffian ducts degenerate, males: mullerian ducts degenerate • (F) mullerian ducts differentiate into fallopian tubes, uterus, upper vagina • (M) wolffian ducts differentiate into epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct o these are not homologous o are analogous – do the same kind of thing • 12-20 weeks: rudimentary genitals • genital - F: outer vagina, clitoris, M: penis, testes descend • tubercle – F:clitoris, M: glans penis • folds – F: labia minora, M:shaft penis • swelling – F: labia majora, M: scrotum • F AND M: hypothalamus 8 variables of Gender • John Money – first person to talk about variables of gender • BIOLOGICAL • 1. Chromosomal/genes: XX, XY • 2. Gonads: ovaries, testes • 3. Predominant prenatal hormones: estrogen and progesterone(F), testosterone(M) • 4. Reproductive organs: uterus and vagina(F), prostate and seminal vesicles(M) • 5. Genital appearance: clitoris and vaginal opening(F), penis and scrotum(M) • 6. Hormones at puberty: E and P(F), T(M) – adult levels, testosterone has organizing effects – changes one permanently (e.g. facial hair, deep voice) • Social and Psychological: • 7. Assigned gender at birth: birth announcement; how we treat the infant o (blue vs. pink schema), soccer player vs. ballerina, polite vs. always fighting • 8. Gender identity: internal sense of male or femaleness • gender role: expectations; behaviour, attitudes, emotions, etc (e.g. boys don’t cry) • sexual orientation: erotic identification Intersexual • hermaphrodite or pseudo hermaphrodite ( • “complete” Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) o no vagina o tissue is insensitive to testosterone – don’t grow hair o infertile o don’t get acne • partial AIS o partial masculinisation (external genitalia – enlarged clitoris) o e.g. baby born with ambiguous genitalia • Androgenital Syndrome or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) – adrenal glands are overgrown o slightly enlarged clitoris • androgen – induced hermaphroditism • progestin – induced hermaphroditism CAH and Salt Wasting • CAH – overgrowth of the adrenal gland because gland is not producing enough cortisone • Pituitary sends out chemical message: get bigger, work harder. • consequently, gland grows and produces more of all the adrenal hormones • adrenal gland produces: cortisone and aldosterone and androgen • aldosterone – maintains levels of sodium and potassium necessary for cells to work normally • if adrenal gland can’t make enough aldosterone, too much salt and water is lost in urine leading to salt deficiency and dehydration • makes too much androgen because of the pituitary message to “work harder” Intersexual conditions (cont) • turners syndrome – CO or Xx o infertile – don’t have ovaries o don’t go through puberty o take synthetic female hormones o had uterus – menstruated o spacial tasks deficits; map reading, a rubix cube, mathematical abilities • klinefelter’s syndrome – XXY o mens testosterone levels low-normal range • hypospadia – urethral meatus elsewhere from tip • vaginal agenesis – 6/6,000 – born without vagina • complete gonadal digenesis – 1/50,000 Gender Identity • transgender o people who transgress gender norms o has NO surgery, just takes testosterone • transsexual o M to F o F to M o biologically woman, change to opposite gender (penile construction, surgeries, etc) • transvestite o “cross-dressing” – for paraphilia (sexual pleasure – usually men) • gender bender o • drag queen/drag(drab) king o Thursday, March 14 • Sexual Orientation : • expression of affectional, emotionsal and sexual attraction • part of sexual identity • Heterosexuality • homosexuality • bisexuality • may include affection, intimacy, emotional attachment, fantasy and behaviour How many people are LGB? 1. Kinsey – based on behaviour Incidence: • hetero (0)– women 87%, men 63% • homo (6)– women 3%, men 33% • incidental (1-5) – women 11%, men 33% • often cited – women 13%, men 37% 2. golden – university women Sexual orientation: • heterosexual – label: 65%, activity: 72% • bisexual – label: 26%, activity: 20% • homosexual – label: 9%, activity: 4% 3. Sex in America – 3 dimensions a) desire b) behaviour c) self-labelling • who do you desire? men/women? behaviour? label? • men: 10% had at least 1 category of same sex, women: 8.6% “” (1 in 10) Canada youth and AIDS study: (early 2000s) • grade 7 o hetero – M 87, F 84 o no one – M 8, F 10 o bi – M 3, F 4 o homo – M & F 1.4 • grade 9 o hetero – 96, 93 o no one – 2 o bi – 1 and 3 o homo – 1.7 and 2 • grade 11 o hetero – 97, 94 o no one - .2, 1.1 o bi – 1.5, 3 o homo - .9, 1.7 Homosexual contact since age 13: • Our class: women – 7%, men – 2.5% • 1999-2012: women – 6%, men – 9% Vs. self label • do labels match behaviour? Homosexual people who have had intercourse: • hetero – 77% • bi – 80% • homo – 57% Heterosexual people who have had same-sex sex: • hetero – 51% • bi – 25% • homo – 24% Attitudes: • heterocentrism – assumption that everyone is heterosexual; ignorance • heterosexism – ideological system; akin to racism and sexism; pervasive in social customs, institutions • homophobia – clinical issues…term has implications for origins, dynamics, motivations – an extreme fear, e.g. running away/panic attack when see gay people, want to beat them up • homonegativity • “homosexuals should not be teachers in primary schools:” our class - women: 3%, men: 15% • Acquainted with a gay person – women: 69%, men 65% • “that’s gay” – to mean “uncool” • “fag/dyke” – as a put down o What would you call this? heterocentric, heterosexist, homonegative, sexual prejudice?? o Microaggression – not directed at gay person, but makes an uncomfortable environment Tuesday, March 19 Thursday, March 21 • Erotica – explicit sexual depictions; no subjugation, coercion or violence • “Hard core” (erotica) vs. “soft core” (suggestive) • Porn (+) – typically a man uses violence and woman gives into passion • Porn (–) – research literature opposed to usage; man is using violence and woman is having a horrible time – e.g. hard core porn negative – woman killing 4 men who raped her in horrible ways “I spit on your grave” • Obscenity – legal term o “any publication a dominant characteristic of which is the undue exploitation of sex” o “undue exploitation” – community standards of tolerance test  Not what you’d look at yourself but what you’d accept other Canadians looking at • The Canadian charter of rights and freedoms guarantees the rights and freedoms set out in it subject only to such reasonable limits prescribed by law as can be demonstrably justified in a free and democratic environment • Limits on free speech; e.g. “fire,” “the holocaust never happened” Canada: Law • Butler (1992) decision • 3 categories – section 163 CCC o 1.Explicit sex with violence – “I spit on your grave” o 2.Explicit sex without violence but degrading or dehumanizing o 3.Explicit sex no violence, no degrading, no dehumanizing • #3 not obscene unless involving children • Some ambiguity: • What is degrading? Dehumanizing? • Sado-masochistic behaviour? • Canada customs power to refuse material without (Little Sister’s bookstore, 1994) Types of materials: • Magazines • Films & videos o Loops go into little booths “adult theatres” that showed short videos o Xrated video cassettes (replaced those theatres in 80’s) o Video cassettes – content analysis o Amateur o 1990s – “better sex” o Music videos – content analysis • Live sex shows – exotic dancers • Telephone sex – content analysis • Electronic sex o Chat rooms o Newsgroups o Commercial bulletin boards o Adult websites – 2006 1.1% (Google and MSN index) were Sexually explicit material – includes chats, stories, video sites o “sexting” • Kiddie Porn – illegal o 1977 – screw magazine (SEM magazine) put ad in new york times, we’ll pay you $$$ to bring child into have sex with adults o Users? – most are pedophiles (Ontario study) – pedos don’t have sexual interest in adults, only in children. Molesters may be in a rltnship with adults but is still a sexual offender against children o Specific section in the Cdn criminal code (exceptions: self, private works, artistic merit; e.g. parents pictures of little children in bathtubs) • Sex in advertising o Products being paired with something sexy – i.e. Gum/condom commercial o **content analysis – form of research – write fave explicit story, notice how often people mention “bums” – analyze that content** o 1964-1984 – content vs. explicitness 23% o 83-2003 – content remained same, explicitness /exposure/positioning(sexy dress of women) increased particularly in men’s magazines Consumers of sexual material: • Profile: educated, middle-class male, 18-40 (average consumer) • New Brunswick students: 89% males and 39% females – looked at SEM in the past month Feminist Beefs: 1. Degrading to women 2. Pairs sex with violence toward women 3. Glamorizes inequality Our class: • Erotica is filthy: men – 7% agree, women – 8% agree • Erotica is entertaining to look at: men 4% disagree, women 15% disagree • Watching an erotic movie = arousing: men 89%, women 71% agreed Effects of SEM: • Arousal (if acceptable) • Attitudes re: aggression and rape o Single exposure – won’t have a permanent effect, won’t have much an impact o Massive exposure – opposite • Attitudes toward women: equivocal o Sexual behaviour: erotica  thoughts, feelings, fantasies, masturbation, and sex o Not personally engaged o Eg. Hearing about anal beads, don’t necessarily want to try • Aggressive and criminal behaviour o Female angers man + show him porn  more > sexual aggress o Female angers man + show him erotica less < aggress o Sex + violence = more effect on people with past aggressive/violence • Solution: education vs. censorship o Ban porn? Censor it? o Educate people – tell them about it before hand, tend to not show effects STI’s • STI’s constitute 11% of the list(2009)– some are reportable, some are not • Bacterial • Viral Clamydia/NGU: • Transmission o easy via sex, towel (wipe self and give it to someone else), eyes, throat, childbirth • Symptoms o Majority of infections are asymptomatic o 70% of females don’t show symptoms initially o 50% of males are asymptomatic o Men: clear white pus at end of penis, soreness in penis o Women: back and pelvic pain, discharge, painful and frequent urination, sore o Incubation: 2-3 weeks, as long as 6 weeks • Treatment o Antibiotics o Untreated: PID (pelvic inflammatory disease-damages reproductive organs), infertility, ectopic pregnancy , Reiter’s syndrome – reactive arthritis • Incidence o Most prevalent bacterial STI in Canada o Increased socio economic status, students (2/3 of cases are youth) o Women: 15-24 – 5 times national average (date from 2009) • Prevention o Vaccine, screening programs, condoms Some epidemiology: • 2009 • 1871/100,000 women (20-24) – biologically more prone to contracting STI’s than men • 1.9/100 • Men some age, about ½ rates of women • #1 bacterial STI in Canada • Reported rate declining until recent • Recent increase due to increased screening, non invasive NAAT (urine test) • People have a lack of awareness/knowledge Chlamydia Control and prevention issues: • Asymptomatic young males • Resist testing • Silent reservoirs • Repeatedly infecting partners • “hidden epidemic” Tuesday, March 26 th 1. A man who is infected with HIV has sexual intercourse with an uninfected woman. What is the % likelihood that she will become HIV infected?? 100% 2. A man who is infected with Chlamydia has sexual intercourse with an uninfected woman. What is the % likelihood that she will become infected with Chlamydia?  100% Results: HIV: 1/1000 (0.1%) Chlamydia: 35% Gonorrhea: • #2 bacterial STI in Canada • Comorbidity –(co-occurring) especially Chlamydia • Rates declining (until recently) o Have risen by more than 40% over the past 5 years o Males account for almost 2/3 of nationally reported cases • Transmission: o Usually sexual o Warm, moist, dark places o Eyes o Fellatio  in throat o Less risky: cunnilingus and kissing • Symptoms: o 80% of Men 3-8 days  yellow-green pus, burning, swollen glands (35%) o Women – asymptomatic easly;later  abdominal pain o Throat  sore o Rectum itchy, pus discharge o Eyes swollen, pain, pus • Treatment: o Antibiotics, treat early 90% o Women: risk of serious infection  reproductive o
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