SMF Textbook Readings Chapter 5, 9, 10, 11 & 12

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Sexuality, Marriage, and Family Studies
SMF 204
B J Rye

Chapter 5- Gender Identity and Gender Roles ­ gender is the psychological sense of being male or female ­ anatomic sex is based on anatomy, gender is a complex concept based partly on anatomy, partly on psychology and partly on tradition and culture Gender typing- the process by which children acquire behaviors deemed appropriate for their sex Sexual differentiation- the process by which males and females develop distinct reproductive anatomy ­ when a sperm cell fertilizes an ovum 23 chromosomes form the male parent normally combine with 23 from the female ­ the zygote is only 0.04 cm long ­ chromosome from each parents combine to form 23 pairs of sex chromosomes ­ an ovum carries an X, but sperm carries either X or Y ­ XX- female, XY male ­ After fertilization, the zygote divides repeatedly ­ After, one cell becomes billions of cells ­ 3 weeks, a primitive heart begins to drive blood through the embryonic bloodstream ­ 5-6 weeks, when the embryo is 0.5 cm- 1 cm, it has a pair of sexually undifferentiated gonads, two sets of primitive duct structures called the Mullerian (female) ducts and Wolffian (male) ducts, and primitive external genitals whose sex cannot be visually distinguished ­ during first 6 weeks of prenatal development, embryonic structures of both genders develop along similar lines, resembling primitive female structures ­ 7 week after conception, the genetic code begins to assert itself causing changes in the gonads, genital ducts and external genitals ­ genetic activity on the Y causes the tests to begin to differentiate ­ if Y is absent, ovaries beg to differentiate ­ 7 week of prenatal development, stands of tissue begin to organize into seminiferous tubules ­ female gonads develop later than male gonads ­ ovaries formed at 11-12 weeks Chromosome- a rodlike structure found in the nucleus of every living cell. It carries the genetic code in the form of genes Zygote- fertilized ovum (egg cell) Embryo- the stage of prenatal development that begins with implantation of a fertilized ovum in the uterus and concludes with development of a major organ system at about 2 months after conception Sex Hormones and Sexual Differentiation ­ produce sex hormones or androgens ­ without androgens, we’d all develop female external reproductive organs ­ each Wolffian duct develops into an epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle th ­ the external genitals begin to take shape at 8 week of development, under the influence of another androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) ­ small amount of androgen are produced in female fetuses ­ the Mullerian ducts evolve into fallopian tubes, the uterus and the upper two-thirds of the vagina Androgens- male sex hormones Testosterone- the male sex hormone that fosters development of male sex characteristics and is connected with the sex drive Descents of the Tests and Ovaries ­ ovaries remain there for the rest of the prenatal period, later rotating and further descending to their adult positions in the pelvis ­ 4 months after concept, the testes normally descend into a scrotal sac through the inguinal canal Inguinal canal- the fetal canal that connects the scrotum and the testes, allowing the latter to descend ­ a small amount of testes fail to descend, remaining in the abdomen at birth o the testes migrate to the scrotum during infancy 1 Cryptorchidism- a condition in which at least one of the testes fails to descend ­ in some cases they descend by puberty, but some usually treated though surgery or hormonal therapy b/c they are higher risk for cancer of the testes and sperm production is impaired Sex Chromosome Abnormalities ­ can be effects on sexual characteristics, physical health and psychological development Klinefelter’s syndrome- a disorder in which a male has an extra X sex chromosome (XXY) ­ fail to develop secondary sex characteristics ­ enlarged breasts, poor muscular development and fail to produce sperm and infertile ­ and tend to have mild mental retardation Turner’s syndrome is a disorder which a female has just one X sex chromosome o may not naturally undergo puberty, begin hormone treatments ­ brain undergoes prenatal sexual differential ­ testosterone cause cells in the hypothalamus of the male fetus to become insensitivity to the female sex hormone estrogen ­ absence of testosterone, the hypothalamus of the female fetus becomes sensitive to estrogen ­ sensitivity to estrogen is important in regulation of the menstrual cycle after puberty ­ hypothalamus detects low levels of estrogen in the blood at the end of each cycle, new cycle starts by stimulating the pituitary gland to secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and stimulates an immature follicle in an ovary to ripen Gender identity- one’s view of oneself as being male or female Sex assignment- the labeling of a newborn as male or female. Gender assignment ­ most children become aware of their anatomic sex by 18 months of age ­ 36 months, develop a sense of gender identity Intersexual- a person who possess the gonads of one gender and external genitalia that are ambiguous or typical of the other gender. An intersexual is also referred to as a pseudohermaphrodite ­ intersexual gonads match their chromosomal sex ­ most common form of female intersexualism is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which a genetic (XX) female has female internal sexual structures (ovaries) but masculinized external genitals o caused by high levels of androgens Anna Servin studied gender typed behavior and interests in girls with CAH and 24 without CAH ­ those wit CAH showed more interests in masculine typed toys o more likely to have boys as playmates and want masculine-typed careers Another type of intersexualism, androgen insensitivity syndrome, affects genetic (XY) male who, as a result of a mutated gene, have experienced lower than normal prenatal sensitivity to androgens ­ their genitals have not masculinized normally ­ at birth, their testes are undescended and their external genitals are feminized ­ their male duct systems have failed o develop ­ their fetal testes have produced Mullerian inhibiting substance, preventing the development of uteruses and fallopian tubes ­ little or no pubic and underarm hair b/c these hairs are dependent on androgens Another type is Dominican Republic syndrome is a genetic enzyme disorder that prevents testosterone from masculinizing the external genitalia ­ normal testes and internal male reproductive organs but their external genitals were malformed o penises were stunted and resembled clitorises o their scrotums were incompletely formed and resembled female labia o partially formed vaginas o resembled girls at birth but at puberty more like men  their testes descended, their voices deepened, and their clitorises expanded into penises 2 ­ gender identity is influenced by interactions among biological and psychosocial factors Intersexuality- all of the different syndromes characterized by some abnormally or anomaly in physical sex differentiation Hermaphrodite- an individual who possesses both ovarian and testicular tissue ­ usually assumes identity and roles of the genders they’re assigned at birth Transsexualism/Transgenderism Transsexualism- a condition in which an individual strongly desires to be and live as a member of the other sex ­ gender identity disorder ­ transgenderism is sometimes used as a synonym for transsexualism- an activist movement seeking right and pride for transgendered individuals ­ many transsexual undergo hormone treatment and surgery ­ easier for male to female than female to male ­ can still have sex and have orgasms ­ transsexual experience gender dysphoria, they experience incongruity between their genital anatomy and their gender identities or roles o feels like a member of the other sex Homosexual transsexual- extremely feminine gay men who seek sex reassignment ­ not satisified with sexual activity of other men Autogynephilic- sexually stimulated by fantasies that his own body is female Lawrence concluded that there are two types of male-to female transsexual- homosexuals and non- homosexuals ­ in lab experiment, 11 male-female transsexuals were shown clips of sexual activity between two males, two females, and one male and one female ­ 5 homo attracted to males one before sex reassignment, showed greater genital responses ­ 6 non-homo showed the opposite SEX REASSIGNMENT ­ lifetime of hormone treatments ­ male-to-female transsexual receives estrogen helps develop female secondary sex characteristics o phonosurgery can raise the pitch of the voice o remove the penis and testicles, tissues from the penis is placed in an artificial vagina o a penis shaped plastic or balsa wood form keeps the vagina distended during healing ­ female-to-male receives androgens, promotes male secondary sex characteristics o internal organs are removed, along with fatty tissues from breasts o society is more accepting of this than male-female Phalloplasty- surgical creation of an artificial penis ­ they don’t work very well and procedures are expensive Stereotype- a fixed, conventional idea about a group of people Gender roles- complex clusters of ways males and females are expected to behave Sexism- the prejudgment that a person will possess certain traits b/c of gender ­ lead use to interpret the same behavior in different ways Marlene Mackie thinks that feminisms has three major dimensions- liberal, socialists and radical o liberal feminists worked hard to achieve equality through education and legislation o socialist feminists focused on structural inequality resulting from social class, sexual orientation and ethnicity o radical feminists focused on issues such as sexual assault, harassment and pornography ­ aggressive adolescent girls were more likely than aggressive adolescent boys to experience isolation and depression Gender typing- the process by which a child acquires behaviors deemed appropriate for his/her gender Biological Perspective 3 ­ focus on the roles of genetics and prenatal influences to gender-linked behavior patterns ­ focuses on the possible roles of hormones in sculpting the brain during prenatal development ­ evolutionary perspective, men as hunters and warriors and woman as caregivers and gatherers f food ­ sexual differentiation of the brain may explain men’s superiority at spatial-relations tasks, ex interpreting road mas and visualizing objects in space o testosterone in the brain of male fetuses spurs greater growth in the right hemisphere (visual) and slows rate of left hemisphere (critical for verbal functions) Psychological Perspective ­ aware of gender role stereotypes by 2-3 years Sigmund Freud requires that boys come to identify their father and girls with their mothers ­ once identification is completed, as child resolve the Oedipus complex- Electra complex in girls, a conflict where the boy wishes to possess his mother sexually and perceive his father as a rival o occurs between age 3-5 o through identification with the same gender parent, the child comes to develop behaviors that are associated with that gender Social-Cognitive Theory ­ explain in terms or processes such as observational learning, identification and socialization ­ identification is viewed as a continuing based learning process in which rewards and punishment influence child to imitate adult models of the same gender ­ not only imitates but tries to become like the model Socialization is the process by which individuals is guiding into socially acceptable behavior patterns through info, rewards and punishment COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY Schema- a concept or a way of interpreting experience or processing info Accordign to Kohlberg, gender typing entails the emergence of three concepts: gender identity, gender stability and gender constancy Gender stability- the concept that people retain their genders for a lifetime Gender constancy- the concept that people’s gender do not change, even if they alter their dress or behavior ­ gender identity usually acquired by the age of three ­ by 4-5 they develop gender stability ­ gender constancy develops in children age 7-8 Gender- Schema Theory ­ purposes that children develop gender schemas as a means of organizing their perception of the world ­ once they acquire gender schemas, they begin to judge themselves in accordance with traits considered appropriate to their genders Gender schema- a cluster of mental representations about male and female physical qualities, behaviors and personality traits ­ gender role affects sexual behavior Psychological androgyny- a state characterized by possession of both stereotypical masculine traits and stereotypical female traits ­ show masculine independence under group pressures to conform and feminine nurturance during interactions with babies or kittens Chapter 9- Sexual Orientation Sexual Orientation refers to a person’s erotic attraction to and interest in developing romantic relationships with others Heterosexual orientation is an erotic attraction to members of the other sex Homosexual orientation- attraction to the ones with the same sex as you Bisexual orientation- sexually attracted to both 4 ­ gay and lesbians may experience heteroerotic interest- of an erotic nature and involving members of the other sex ­ womans sexual orientation are more flexible than mens The Kinsey Continuum ­ people located on continuum according to their patterns of sexual attraction and behavior ­ people in category 0 are considered exclusively heterosexual, while those who are in 6 are exclusively gay Bisexuality ­ some have stronger attraction to one than the other ­ biphobia, hate of bisexuals can be found in both homo and hetero people Asexual is described as people who have a low sexual attraction for both sexes ­ queer people reject the labels gay, straight and bisexual o queer is a positive, self affirming term for people who don’t see themselves as fitting into standard classification of sexual orientation Two-spirited refers to gender or social identity, and same-sex behavior Historical and Religious Perspectives ­ some ancient societies, ex Greeks accepted male-male sexual behavior ­ jews and Christians think male-male sex as the sin of Sodom ­ some churches perform marriages for gay couples or bless their relationships Chris Cultural Perspective ­ in some preliterate societies, semen is believed to boost strength ­ the Sambia of New Guinea, 9-12 year olds leaves their home and lives with other adolescent males and they undergo sexual rites of passage o to acquire the fierce manhood of the headhunter, the drink other mens semen o by 19- they expected to take bride and be straight Biological Perspectives ­ monozygotic twins (identical) are more likely to both be gay than dizygotic twins ­ gay males were more likely to have gay male relatives on their mothers side of the family ­ testosterone appears to take activating effects in adulthood- those effects of sex hormones that influence sex drive levels but not sexual orientation ­ in lesbians and straight men, the right hemisphere was larger than the left, the amygdala’s functioning was similar ­ in gay and straight woman, both sides of the brain were the same, the amygdala’s functioning was similar o this finding suggests that brain organization differs by sexual orientation as well as y gender o therefore biology predispose a person to be gay or not Psychological Perspective Psychoanalytic Views Sigmund Freud believes the boy will have desires for his mother and come to identify with his father ­ Then he’ll transfer his erotic attraction form his mother to a more appropriate female ­ in his view, gay or lesbians results form failure to successfully resolve the Oedipus complex ­ he believes unresolved castration anxiety makes them gay ­ his fear causes him to repress his sexual desire and to identify with the potential aggressor ­ he overcomes his castration anxiety and is then heterosexual ­ but if he doesn’t successfully overcome this, castration anxiety may persist, and when he mature, woman’s lack of penises will arouse unconscious castration anxiety within him ­ he believes girls become envious of boys penises o jealousy leads the girl to resent her mother and blame her for not having one and turn to her father as sexual object 5 o she desires her father b/c his penis provides what she lacks o competition with her mother, but motivated by fear that her mother will withdraw her love, the girl normally represses them and comes to identify with her mother o a baby is the penis substitute Castration anxiety- a mans fear that his genitals will be removed, an element of Oedipus complex Penis envy- a girl’s wish to have a penis Learning theories focus on the role of reinforcement of early patterns of sexual behavior Gender non-conformity means not behaving in a way that’s consistent with the gender-role stereotype associated with one’s sex in a given culture ­ leads to social rejection by parents and peers Butch- lesbian who assumes a traditional masculine gender role ­ higher waist to hip ratios, higher testosterone levels in their saliva Femme- lesbian who assumes a traditional feminine gender role Gay bashing- violence against homos Ritch Savin Williams and Lisa Diamong think tat the development of sexual identity in gay males and lesbians involve four steps: attraction to the same sex, self-labeling as gay/lesbian, sexual contact with same sex and disclosure of their sexual orientation to others Chapter 10- Conception, Pregnancy and Childbirth ­ concept is the union of a sperm cell and an ovum ­ sperms with Y chromosomes are faster swimmers than those with X chromosomes ­ fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube ­ ova contains chromosomes, proteins, fats, and nutritious fluids and surrounded by gelatinous layer called th
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