SDS 130R Midterm Review Study Notes.docx

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University of Waterloo
Social Development Studies
SDS 131R
Theresa Romkey

SDS 130R Midterm Review Study Notes Multiple Choice Classical Liberalism  The rise of liberalism was a result of three things: Sciethific Rethlution, Reformation and Rise of the Nation State. Collectively throughout the 16 and 17 century these events saw people challenging the norms of their society and taking control of the way they were being governed.  Classic liberalism stems from liberty, in essence being able to make decisions without restriction from higher governing powers. This ideology is specifically focused on the individual and their ability to select legitimate political leaders that allow said individual to make their own decisions as people can are able to think for themselves, help ourselves and we strive to do better. Equality plays a big role in Classical Liberalism as it falls under a very optimistic view of human nature and says people need equality of opportunity. Classically liberalists called for a movement away from ascribed status to achieved status where people could work their way up the social hierarchy. Three main theorists: Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau all start off with the idea of a social contract (giving up something to the state for protection) and move forward into questioning why people chose to create the state.  Thomas Hobbes was not a classical liberalist but contributed to Classical Liberalism as understood today. Hobbes had a pessimistic view of human nature and thought that unlimited freedom would be the demise of a society. Instead he suggested a large state in which citizens would have to give up a lot in order to get protection from the state.  John Locke wanted a separation from the church and state. He believed that without a common law to govern all, the state of nature would become the state of war. In his views the states job was to deal with disputes when they arouse and otherwise stay away from people’s personal and business matters. Locke was an advocate for properties rights in which all people have access to all things and are only limited by labour power, sufficiency and spoilage. This notion justifies colonization and is responsible for the exploitation of resources in colonized countries.  Civil Society represents interests of the masses and the state is made up of ‘perfect members’, white property owning males. Rebellion would be justified if the state became unconstitutional or there was an invasion of property.  Adam Smith was the father of capitalism and he believed there was possibility for unlimited growth. He supported mercantilism because one country could prosper at the expense of another. In addition Smith wanted no state regulation and the corporation’s only job was to make money. In this view, competition was a positive element to business as it caused others to better themselves. He wanted an economic system with equality of opportunity, freedom and for it to be fair. The state’s role is to provide military protection, regulate when disputes occur and provide infrastructure and education to allow for equality.  Immanuel Kant is famous for the phrase ‘dare to know’ and pushed for freedom of thought through a civil society. Another key point of his idea was that in order for freedom he also thought people needed equality. He had a negative view on human nature as he thought the state of nature was the state of war and that we don’t even know the extent to which we are being controlled. Reform Liberalism  Response to social problems caused by the Industrial Revolution  Human nature is rational but needs help becoming self sufficient (role of government)  Freedom is the ability to realize one’s self and have to opportunities to develop it.  Government is of the people, for the people and main role it to protect the people  Wants social change and will achieve it in a non-violent manner  Still agrees that all people deserve a change to ‘run the race’ but recognize that some individuals need more assistance from time to time  Social safety net to help the less fortunate with money from those on top  Grounded in the notion of the social contract  Gives priority to political and civil matters and less focused on the economic problems of society  Popular with middle and lower class but turns away higher class individuals due to expensive social programs  high taxes  John Stuart Mill- utilitarianism- leads away from Locke’s rights-based theory and focused on self-improvement  Harm Principle-do what you please unless your actions intervene with others rights then state has an obligation to intervene  Focus on positive liberty i.e. the enhancement of opportunities for a person to exercise more choice  L.T. Hobhouse-state provides conditions for mind and character to develop. Came up with the idea of living wage, how much you need to survive with a bit of wiggle room (investment for re4tirment, emergencies etc.)  John Maynard Keynes- aims to change institutional; structures, government tasks should be decentralized and placed in the hands of corporations. Embraces pluralism and rejects Laissez-fair economics Neo-Liberalism Rise of Neo-Liberalism:  Golden age of capitalism (reformed liberalism policies) started to decline after the 1960s  Middle class was created by the state with the building of infrastructure, schools and welfare systems  Breton Woods in 1944 created a more valuable money exchange system  Value of each country’s currency pegged to the U.S. dollar  Gold Standard: can’t print more money than gold you have on reserve  After 1970’s we lose faith in Keynesian welfare state  U.S. unpegs and abandons the gold-based system Three Major Developments  Internationalization of trade and finance: NAFTA taking down trade barriers  Increasing power of transnational corporations: bigger corporations result in a lack of protectionist policies (not real competition)  Increasing role of IMF, WB and WTO: started with the best of intentions now turned neo-liberal Neo-Liberalism  Limits government intervention in economy (small state with a specific role  night watchman state  Free markets, no limitations for business (market will balance itself out)  Privatise public enterprises because business is better at business than the government  Taxes cut for the rich by reducing public spending on social programs  Difference between classical and neo is that classical has to do with reason, humanity, justice (freedom in every sense) and neo wants freedom seen on economic eyes  Hegemony: if you think you can move up in society you’ll accept inequality  Focus on negative liberty, not all freedom is good  Rights over utility  Meritocracy: everything you get is based on merit Differences from Liberalism  Libertarian: freedom in all areas  Neo-Liberalist: mainly economic freedom Friedrich Hayek  Had an issue with Russian communists and watches fascism arise  Thought to not used state money in economic down turn to boost economy, rather private investment  State money in bad economic times creates a bubble that will eventually pop (unsustainable growth)  Government out of the business of business  There is conflict between capitalism and democracy, corporations are only there for their own purposes  Limit state and worry about conduct Mancur Olson  Only a separate and selective incentive will motivate an individual to act in a group oriented way  need to get something out of doing the right thing  Rational (choice) Utility (purpose) Maximizers (most benefit)  Free rider program example of how welfare state fails  Strong government that is not effected by special interest groups Robert Nozick (liberalism)  Rights trump utilitarian concerns  A person owns themselves and their labour power and what goods they produce  You have certain rights to a degree (Harm principle)  Sees forced labour as theft  State is rooted in the idea of the invisible hand rather than the social contract  Rights of others is what shifts us Example: Bill C-38  ‘There is no bad jobs, the only bad job is no job’  Trying to get rid of the free riders and sense of entitlement  Wants everyone working and makes disincentives to be unemployed  No way to wait for the perfect job Marxism Nigel Marsh: people are so oppressed they don’t even see their own oppression  Why?  to conform or we don’t know how/don’t want to start over Karl Marx  Influenced by Georg Hegel (historical materialism  economic base)  The capitalists system is inherently flawed and that will lead to its demise  Communist Manifesto in 1848 to educate public on their own oppression  Das Kapital: critic of capitalism Arguments  Humans are a product of their environment (human nature is plastic and can be changed)  Wants full equality (economic, political and social)  The state was produced because of class conflict  Two different approaches to the state o Big state (socialism o No state (communism)  Change from capitalism to socialism and eventually communism Capitalism  Surplus wealth: factory produces so many good things yet profits go to only a small group (owners)  exploitation  Change only occurs through tension and conflict  Built on conflict between classes, specifically between the bourgeoisie (workers) and the proletariat (factory owners).  Reserve army of labour: group that can move in and out of the system when needed o Regulate wages (there’s always someone willing to do your job for less) o Supply labour during sudden expansion and production (war times)  False consciousness: people are unable to see their own oppression under capitalism What Marx Wants  Productive work: work that makes your heart sing  No Private property because it divides people  Alienation of work o Product: worker cannot afford to buy the product they produce o Process: worker has no say on how the good is produced o Others: workers isolated from co-workers o Species Being: work doesn’t have meaning  Petite Bourgeoisie: middle class (small business owners)  Lumpenproletariat: Scum, the leavings, the refused of all classes (thieves, beggars prostitutes) They are the hardest to bring into revolution because they thrive off their oppression Historical Eras  Capitalism is not a new idea  Factors of our evolution: geography, food supply etc.  Marx saw human nature as changeable (from primitive communism capitalism to communism) Why Capitalism Will Fail  Growing amount of urban workers result in an uncontrollable amount of social problems  Social element of workers (they will talk outside the work place and protest poor conditions)  Deskilling labour will put people out of jobs (machine operated factories)  Poor will get poorer and rich will get richer  Class polarization  Unionization of workers (started in the 1800s) The Revolution  Creation of Unions: political party that represents the working class’ needs  Changing of hegemonic ideologies (Ideas of the ruling class that the working class accept to be theirs)  Plan is to stay under socialism for a few generation to train ideas into people through the education system  Intelligentsia: enlightening individual to lead the revolution (the head and the proletariat are the heart) o Issue: still some one telling others what to do Socialism  State is big for redistribution and protection from the bourgeoisie  Take away property rights and child labour  Change ideologies through the control of the education system and media  Wealth shared between all workers, and equal share for productive work  Workers are not defined by their work Communism  At a point, people will be so enlightened the state becomes unnecessary and dies away  Everyone can work at one level (to their ability to meet their needs) Political vs. Human Emancipation  Can never get human emancipation from getting the right to vote (political freedom) because it’s the structure that oppresses us  Religion see as the drug of the masses because people become addicted, any questions asked need faith to answer (God said) Fascism  Roots: Extreme, one strong leader, focus on the nation  Military to show control: use kids and you men to sell their idea because they are the most malleable in society (through education system and media)  All parts of nation have a role (organic), need total leadership due to humans irrational, emotional nature, only one way to be (one nation, one state)  No need for democracy, one party run by military  Promote violence and war, gives a common group to hate, keep people in a state of fear to keep control  Maintain traditions (symbols and stories) and prevent social change  3 option economically  corporate business works with labour but still some government involvement  Still relevant in countries promoting anti-multicultural policies such as the Netherlands Human Nature: Irrational and emotional Origins of the Change and violece State: based on accepted and power, coercion promoted and social fitness (the 'right' person) Core Beliefs Coropeative No individual Economy: the 3rd liberty and way Embrace inequality Community over the individual Benito Mussolini  Italian leader of the fascist party  Involved in labour strikes as a young person and also served in WWI  Had no issue with colonization and wanted to turn people into Italians  Wanted Italy to become an autarky o Economic policy the emphasizes self-sufficiency through the reduction of imported goods  How he did it Gets people to give Public works (gets government their people working) and gold for the good of agriculture programs the country to use in (feed people get banks (shows trust farmers vote) and limits industrial power) Pushed for partial government control Forced citizens to of bussiness (gives give up foregin stocks the illusion of power (seen as a disrespect and builds for the to Italy and secured a nation first) bond to nationalism Adolf Hitler  Socialist party, emerged thro
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