SDS 150R Test 2 Short Answer Topics.doc

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Social Development Studies
SDS 150R
Peter Hymmen

SDS 150R: Test 2 – Short answer topics Early childhood development 1. Motor development Growth and Motor Development • Between 6 and 12 child can add 2-3 inches and 6lbs per year • Improvement of large muscle skills (ride bike, play basketball) and fine motor skills (drawing, musical instruments) • Girls more rapid in fine motor development as well as in growth The Brain and Nervous System • First growth spurt for brain (6-8) sensory and motor areas • Second (10-12) in frontal lobes of cerebral cortex • Continued myelinisation • Selective Attention: the ability to focus cognitive activity on the important elements of a problem or situation. • Association Areas: parts of the brain where sensory, motor and intellectual functions are linked • Spatial Perception: the ability to identify and act on relationships between objects in space • Relative Right-Left Orientation: the ability to identify right and left from multiple perspectives • Spatial Cognition: the ability to infer rules from and make predictions about the movement objects 2. Theory of mind and factors that influence it • Theory of Mind: a set of ideas constructed by a child or adult to explain other people’s idea’s beliefs and behavior • Factors that influence: o Language and verbal reasoning o Cognitive skills and abilities o Make believe play o Social interaction 3. Parenting styles (Maccoby and Martin) and outcomes of each Parenting Styles • Permissive: high in nurturance and low in maturity demands control and communication o Slightly worse in school, be more aggressive and immature, less likely to take responsibility, less independent • Authoritarian: low in nurturance and communication but high in demands and maturity demands o Less well in school, low self-esteem, less skilled with peers • Authoritative: high in nurturance, maturity demands, control and communication o High self-esteem, independence, more likely to comply with parents requests o Inductive discipline: parents explain to children why a punished behaviour is wrong • Uninvolved: low in nurturance, maturity demands, control and communication o More impulsive, antisocial, less competent and less achievement oriented in school 4. Effects of ethnicity and SES on parenting • Parenting depends on the cultural context • Culture is not related to negative outcomes • Good parenting occurs across SES • Lower SES experience more risk factors 5. Types of family structures Family Structure Diversity in Two-Parent and Single-Parent Families • Most common living arrangement for children • Single parent households are no more alike than are two parent households Family Structures and Ethnicity • Single family homes more common among African Americans and Natives because of births of unmarried women and the fact that they are less likely to get married Family Structure Effects • Optimum situation for children includes two natural parents • Factors associated with single parenthood such as poverty may help explain its negative effects • Single parent families, children twice as likely to drop out • Sex-role identities are challenged Middle childhood development 1. Changing relations with peers through play (Parten) Relating to Peers Through Play • Children are likely to spend at least some of their time playing alone (solitary play) • 14-18 months play together with toys but side by side with different toys (parallel play) • 18 months pursue own activities but also engage in spontaneous though short lived social interactions (associative play) • 3-4 years several children work together to accomplish a goal (cooperative play) • Social Skills: a set of behaviours that usually lead to being accepted as a play partner or friend by peers • True aggression (intentional harm) versus accidental injuries during normal rough-and- tumble play 2. Behaviour that distinguishes friends from non-friends (“Friendly behaviour”) Prosocial Behavior and Friendships • Prosocial Behaviour: behaviour intended to help another person • Development of Prosocial Behaviour o Selfless behaviours first become evident in children of about 2 or 3 at the same time the interest in playing with other children o Some kinds of prosocial behaviour such as taking turns increase with age • Parental Influences on Prosocial Behaviour o Parents of altruistic children create a loving and warm family climate o Prosocial Attributions: positive statements about the underlying cause for helpful behaviour o Parents of altruistic children also look for opportunities for them to do helpful things • Friendships o Beginning at 18 months children develop preferences for playmates o Having a friend in early childhood is related to social competence 3. Gender segregation and differences boy and girl group behaviour The Gender Concept and Sex Roles Explaining Gender Concept and Sex-Role Development • Gender Concept: understanding of gender, gender-related behaviour, and sex roles • Sex Roles: behaviour expected for males and females in a given culture • Psychoanalytic Explanations o In order to identify with a parent, child must learn and conform to his or her sex- role concepts o Children learn both the gender concept and sex roles through the process of identification • Social-Learning Explanations o Role of par
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