SDS Test 2 Readings.docx

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Department
Social Development Studies
Course Code
SDS 150R
Professor
Peter Hymmen

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SDS Test 2 Readings: Lifespan Development 4 Edition by Boyd and Bee Chapters 8, 9, 10 Chapter 8: Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood Theories of Social and Personality Development Psychoanalytic Perspectives  Freud: Anal and Phallic stages o Anal (1-3): toilet training interfered with toddlers need to experience control over anal functioning, training methods too strict or too permissive lead to personality problems o Phallic ( 3-6): Oedipus or Electra complex arises resulting in identification with same-sex parent, healthy personality development needs both parents in the home  Erikson o Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt: toddler’s new mobility and the accompanying desire for autonomy o Initiative v. Guilt: new cognitive skills (ability to plan) which accentuates his wish to take the initiative  Both Theorists: key to healthy development during this period is striking a balance between the child’s emerging skills and desires for independence and the parent’s need to protect the child and control the child’s behaviour  Hartup: each child needs experience in different kinds of relationships o Attachment to someone who has greater knowledge or social power o Reciprocal relationship with equal knowledge and social power Social-Cognitive Perspectives  Social-cognitive theory: asserts the social and personality development in early childhood is related to improvements in the cognitive domain  Person Perception: the ability to classify others according to categories such as age, gender and race o Cross-Race effect: individuals are more likely to remember the faces of people of their own race than those of people of a different race is established by age 5  Social Convention (a rule that serves to regulate behaviour but gas no moral implications) versus Moral Rules (regulations based on an individual’s or society’s fundamental sense of right and wrong Family Relationships and Structure Attachment  2-3 still strong attachment to one or more parents but attachment activities are not as visible  Those who are insecurely attached show more aggression to peers and adults in social situations  Attachment relationship changes at age four to goal-corrected partnership (Bowlby) Parenting Styles  Permissive: high in nurturance and low in maturity demands control and communication o Slightly worse in school, be more aggressive and immature, less likely to take responsibility, less independent  Authoritarian: low in nurturance and communication but high in demands and maturity demands o Less well in school, low self-esteem, less skilled with peers  Authoritative: high in nurturance, maturity demands, control and communication o High self-esteem, independence, more likely to comply with parents requests o Inductive discipline: parents explain to children why a punished behaviour is wrong  Uninvolved: low in nurturance, maturity demands, control and communication o More impulsive, antisocial, less competent and less achievement oriented in school Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status and Parenting Styles  Authoritative most common amongst Caucasian race and across races most likely in the middle class Family Structure Diversity in Two-Parent and Single-Parent Families  Most common living arrangement for children  Single parent households are no more alike than are two parent households Family Structures and Ethnicity  Single family homes more common among African Americans and Natives because of births of unmarried women and the fact that they are less likely to get married Family Structure Effects  Optimum situation for children includes two natural parents  Factors associated with single parenthood such as poverty may help explain its negative effects  Single parent families, children twice as likely to drop out  Sex-role identities are challenged Divorce  Not a single variable; children affected by many pre-divorce factors  Few years after divorce child shows decline in school grades, more aggressive, defiant and negative or depressed behaviour  Generally negative effects are more pronounced for boys than girls Understanding the Effects of Family Structure and Divorce  Single parenthood reduces financial and emotional resources available to the child  Any family transition involves an upheaval  Extended Family: a social network of grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins and so on Peer Relationships Relating to Peers Through Play  Children are likely to spend at least some of their time playing alone (solitary play)  14-18 months play together with toys but side by side with different toys (parallel play)  18 months pursue own activities but also engage in spontaneous though short lived social interactions (associative play)  3-4 years several children work together to accomplish a goal (cooperative play)  Social Skills: a set of behaviours that usually lead to being accepted as a play partner or friend by peers  True aggression (intentional harm) versus accidental injuries during normal rough-and- tumble play Aggression  Aggression: behaviour intended to harm another person or object  As verbal skills improve, move away from their physical aggression  Instrumental Aggression: aggression used to gain or damage an object  Hostile Aggression: aggression used to hurt another person or gain an advantage  Aggression always preceded by frustration was always preceded by frustration and that frustration was always followed by aggression (Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis)  Reinforcement and modeling are important  Most children become less aggressive during preschool years  Aggressive children may shape their environments in order to gain continuing reinforcement for their behaviour  Highly aggressive children lag behind their peers in understanding others intentions Prosocial Behavior and Friendships  Prosocial Behaviour: behaviour intended to help another person  Development of Prosocial Behaviour o Selfless behaviours first become evident in children of about 2 or 3 at the same time the interest in playing with other children o Some kinds of prosocial behaviour such as taking turns increase with age  Parental Influences on Prosocial Behaviour o Parents of altruistic children create a loving and warm family climate o Prosocial Attributions: positive statements about the underlying cause for helpful behaviour o Parents of altruistic children also look for opportunities for them to do helpful things  Friendships o Beginning at 18 months children develop preferences for playmates o Having a friend in early childhood is related to social competence The Gender Concept and Sex Roles Explaining Gender Concept and Sex-Role Development  Gender Concept: understanding of gender, gender-related behaviour, and sex roles  Sex Roles: behaviour expected for males and females in a given culture  Psychoanalytic Explanations o In order to identify with a parent, child must learn and conform to his or her sex- role concepts o Children learn both the gender concept and sex roles through the process of identification  Social-Learning Explanations o Role of parents in shaping children’s sex-role behaviour and attitudes o Parents reinforce sex-typed activities by buying different kinds of toys and responding more positively when boys play with trucks or girls play with dolls  Social-Cognitive Explanations o Children’s understanding of gender is linked to gender-related behaviour (Piagetian Theory: Lawrence Kohlberg) o Gender Constancy Theory: Kohlberg’s assertion that children must understand that gender is a permanent characteristic before they can adopt appropriate sex roles o Gender Constancy: the understanding that gender is a component of the self that is not altered by external appearance  Gender-Schema Theory o Gender-Schema Theory: an information processing approach to gender concept development that asserts that people use a schema for each gender to process information about themselves and others o Key difference between this and Kohlberg’s theory is that gender schema asserts that children need not understand that gender is permanent to form an initial gender schema Gender Concept  Gender Identity: the ability to correctly label oneself and others as male or female  Gender Stability: the understanding that gender is a stable, life-long characteristic  Final step of true gender constancy the recognition that someone stays the same gender even though he may appear to change by wearing different clothes of changing his hair length Sex-Role Knowledge  Asking boys and girls what men and women like to do and what they are like  Every culture there are clear stereotypes Sex-Typed Behaviour  Sex-Typed Behaviour: different patterns of behaviour exhibited by boys and girls  Preference for certain toys (18 months) and preference for same-sex friends (2-3)  Eleanor Maccoby: o Girls Enabling Style: supporting friend, expressing agreement, and making suggestions  foster greater equality and intimacy in the relationship and keep the interaction going o Boys Constricting or Restrictive Style: tends to derail the interaction to inhibit the partner causing interaction to come to an end  Cross-Gender Behaviour: behaviour that is atypical for one’s own sex but typical for the opposite sex  More common among girls than boys Chapter 9: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Physical Changes Growth and Motor Development  Between 6 and 12 child can add 2-3 inches and 6lbs per year  Improvement of large muscle skills (ride bike, play basketball) and fine motor skills (drawing, musical instruments)  Girls more rapid in fine motor development as well as in growth The Brain and Nervous System  First growth spurt for brain (6-8) sensory and motor areas  Second (10-12) in frontal lobes of cerebral cortex  Continued myelinisation  Selective Attention: the ability to focus cognitive activity on the important elements of a problem or situation.  Association Areas: parts of the brain where sensory, motor and intellectual functions are linked  Spatial Perception: the ability to identify and act on relationships between objects in space  Relative Right-Left
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