Social Work Exam Review
CHAPTER 14 - Social Work and Sexual and Gender Diversity
1. What are the main theories that are helpful in understanding sexuality? describe in detail
i. Biological Determinism
-an individual’s personality, behaviour and attitude is determined by genes, minimizing role of
-focus on organic causes of non-conventional gender and sexual identities and behaviour
-sexuality in terms of biology, ei brain structure of a homoexual male is different than tha of a
-strengths include a way to help people understand that LGBTTQ are born this way
-limitations include the hunt for a “gay gene” and parents who wish to test their fetus and choose
abortion based on the findings
-also does not address discrimination and prejudice faced by those in the LGBTTQ community
ii. Social Constructionism
-sexualities and gender identities are constructed by our social and cultural context and
-stengths: outlines significance of society in shaping our sexual behaviours
-limitations:ignored biological factors, does not explain different between sexual desires and
actual sexual behaviours
iii. Queer Theory
-maintains that sexual and gender behaviours, identities and categories are social constructs
-people do not fit in specific categories of “heterosexual” and “homosexual” or “male” or “female”
-rethinking the categories created for people
-our biological makeup intersects with cultural norms to shape our sex, gender and sexualty
-challenges the polarization that exists between biological determinism and social
2. What are some of the counselling issues faced by social workers who are LGBTTQ?
-feel shame, stress, guilt and stigma. could be good role models but are forced to hide
-face homophobia and heterosexisms and stereotypes
-may feel they are not meeting social standards and norms
CHAPTER 15 - Social Work with Persons with Disabilities
Short Answer 1.Define ableism in our society. Describe the PCS model of ableism.
-discrimination and prejudice based on physical and mental ability towards people with
disabilities, supporting the belief that people without disabilities are superior to people with
-P - Prejudice towards disabled people at a personal level
-C - Cultural Norms stigmatize people with disabilities and emphasize the horror of being
disabled. create a negative image of being disabled
-S- Social Stratification and social division, focus on the manner in which people with disabilities
are kept out of the mainstream. Marginalized because of structural and attitudinal barriers.
2. Why does the stigmatization of people with disabilities occur in the western world?
-growing cultural emphasis on “body beautiful” as its become a valued norm
-disability is viewed as undesirable and unlovable because of this
-persons with disabilities often have difficulties in developing friendships and intimate
relationships; thus might face social isolation
3. Describe the origins and main objectives of the Independent Living Movement.
-originated in the USA in 1970 and Canada in 1979
-started at Berkeley University while in the 1960s. Persons in wheelchairs were housed in
hospitals, student protests allowed people to recognize that rehabilitation and medical
professionals largely controlled their lives.
-aims to achieve human rights legislation for persons with disabilities
-help people with disabilities achieve self-direction over the personal and community services
needed to attain their own independent living
1.What are the common stereotypes regarding peoples with disabilities?
-should in a continuous state of emotion distress and psychological suffering, when they are not
showing signs of long-term grieving or mourning, they are considered in denial
-unlovable and undesirable because they don't fit the cultural norm of beauty
-they are psychologically damaged - people believe there is an interconnectedness to physical,
emotional and mental aspects of the human body. if there is damage to one aspect of the
system (physical) that there must be damage to the emotional and mental aspects also
2. What are the differences between the medical model and a social model of disability?
-disability is primarily of medical problem
-interventions are to “cure” or “fix” the individual -persons who become disabled due to personal tragedy go through various stages of
psychological and emotional adjustment before they accept themselves
-assumed persons must move through coping stages to become fully adjusted
-believed there is only one path to do so
-believed there is an optimal length of time for staying in each stage. (eg. shock, denial, greif,
loss, reconciliation and acceptance)
-oppression is not just the result of physical impairment alone, also the result of social and
-challenges the view that disability is an individual problem requiring individual treatment and
individual solutions to problems
-view people with disabilities as a minority population
-they face disabilities due to environmental factors such as: inaccessible physical space, lack of
accessible transportation, lack of affordable housing, negative stereotypes and prejudices
3. What are the six important issues that a social worker should consider when working with the
family of a person with a disability?
i. Emotional coping and functioning skills
-the intensity and impact of disability on the family may be influenced by the family’s ability to
cope in a previous life crises.
-the social worker should build on these abilities and help the family apply them in this new
ii. The family’s post-traumatic functioning
-help them recognize their strengths and find, maintain and develop resources and supports
-includes “internal supports” such as strong effective relationships between family members,
strong parent-child bonds, etc.
-also includes “external supports” such as extended family members, friends, support groups,
iii. The person’s status within the family
-ei, who has the disability, mother, father, infant, child?
-each person creates a new circumstance that will be different and each will call for a different
type of response with respect to how family members may or may not cope with the onset of a
iv. The stage in the life cycle of the family
-influences how people cope with the onset