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Final

Soc 101 COMPLETE FINAL EXAM NOTES

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 101
Professor
Sara Cumming
Semester
Fall

Description
Soc 101 Final Exam Notes Winter 2012 Chapter 7 Social InequalitySocial stratificationa societys hierarchical ranking of people into social classesSocial classa group of individuals sharing a position in a social hierarchy o Based on both birth and achievements in life o Social statusan individuals position within the class structureBecause material resources are always in short supply a stratified system ensures that those individuals who do moreare more capable receive more material wealthsocial recognition o Ex doctors possess more talent and aregranted more material rewards o Social stratification allows people who offer more to society to have moreMeritocracya system of rewards based on personal attributes and demonstrated abilities o Based on the principle that people achieve what they deserve o Ex the grades you get in school are based on how well you do on your test not age sexAlthough there is some movement between social classes social mobility in reality very few people are able to move out of the social class into which they were born o Intergenerational mobilitycomparing adult childrens status to that of their parents o Intragenerational mobilitycomparing an individuals status position over hisher lifetimeSocial stratification has little relationship to skillsabilities o Highstatus people tend to have an easier time obtaining status even if theyre not skilledClassismClassismpeoples relative worth is at least partly determined by their social and economic status o Legitimates economic inequality the ideology of competitive individualism o the wealthy deserve what they have and the poor are responsible for their failure2 perspectives as to why people are poor 1 Ones that blame the victim 2 Ones that blame the system1 Blaming the VictimPerspective that holds individuals responsible for the negative conditions in which they live o The poor need to work harder in order to transcend their povertyCulture of povertybelief system held by the poor as an adaptation to systemic discrimination o The poor feel helpless marginalized and inferior Soc 101 Final Exam Notes Winter 2012The poor do not appreciate the value of deferred gratificationthe ability to forgo immediate pleasures in the interest of achieving greater rewards in the future o They have a fatalistic view of the futurethey take what they can now rather than risk getting nothing laterMiddle class people learn to save money study and work hard so that they reap the rewards later2 Blaming the SystemPerspective that recognizes that systemic discrimination exists within the social systemDeindustrializationthe transformation of an economy from one based on manufacturing to one based on services influences unemployment and poverty levels o The poor lack the skill needed for the new more highly skilled jobs compared to industrialFrom Perception to PolicyWealthymiddle classbelieved their success was a result of their skills and effortThe poorsaw their economic troubles as the result of structural factors lack of opportunity high unemployment rates inadequate schoolingClosed and Open Social Systems2 major ways in which social systems rank people 1 Closed systemsstatus is based on attributes ascribed at birth a Ascribed statusex race sex b closedinnate attributes cannot be changed allow for little social mobility 2 Open systemsstatus is based on achieved attributes a Achieved statusex effort ability1 Closed Systems CasteCaste systemascribed systems of hereditary class designation o Allows NO social mobility o Emphasize a legitimating ideology usually religious to supportjustify such differences o Central component of who people are what they wear their job who they can marry etc o Ex India4 castes for the types of work Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya and ShudraDalituntouchables who have no caste means oppressed and exploited 2
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