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[SOC 101] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 115 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC101
Professor
Barry Mc Clinchey
Study Guide
Final

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UW
SOC 101
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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CHAPTER 1 Understanding the Sociological Imagination
Sociology systematic study of human groups and interactions
Sociological perspective view of society based on the dynamic relationships between individuals and the
larger social network in which we all live; way sociologists see world
Charles Wright Mills
- failing to see how personal problems are influenced by social forces inhibits ppl from
understanding/resolving them
- individual and social LINKED -> can’t understand one w/o the other
- personal troubles personal challenges that req. individual solutions
- social issues challenges caused by larger social factors that req. collective solutions
- personal troubles never become social issues b/c ppl do not equate their personal issues w/ the social
world
- quality of mind ability to look beyond personal circumstance and into social context
- if no one discusses their person troubles, they never realize it is a social issue
- sociological imagination ability to understand relationship b/w individual lives and larger society;
improves quality of mind; internal reflection leads to discovery of social forces
- cheerful robots unwilling/unable to see social world as it truly exists
Peter Berger
- sociological perspective ability to view world from 2 distinct, yet complementary perspectives; seeing
general in particular; strange in familiar
- general in particular look at unique events and recognize larger features involved
- strange in familiar looking at what seems normal/familiar and seeing it as strange
- concepts are CORNERSTONE of sociological perspective
agency individuals have ability to alter their socially constructed lives
structure network of stable opportunities and constraints influencing individual behaviour
5 Social Factors
1. Minority Status
Race/nationality, physical/mental disability, homo/bisexuals, etc
2. Gender
Patriarch system where men control political/economic resources of society
3. Socio-economic Status (SES)
Rank ppl into hierarchical structure based on income, education, occupation, etc
Ascribed status -> attributes assigned at birth
Achieved status -> attributes developed as a result of effort/skill
Most do NOT overcome their status (poor stay poor their whole life)
4. Family Structure
Loving parents w/ adequate incomes raise productive children
5. Urban-Rural Differences
Rural ppl hold onto their roots (defining feature) and say they are distinct from urban ppl
* All of these factors influence the way you live your life and the way you think
Origins of Sociology
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- Confucius (China) and ancient Greeks discussed society in general and role of individual citizen
- Ancient Greece -> Sophites travelled and taught the rich how to be happy (focused study on humans)
- Socrates/Plato -> challenge being paid for one’s knowledge; advocated deeper reflection on human
social condition
- Plato: “in a State which is ordered w/ a view to the good of the whole we should be most likely to find
justice”
- Ibn Khaldun -> first philosopher to work from sociological perspective
- August Comte -> coined term sociology; “father of sociology” (1838)
3 Revolutions (Scientific, Political, Industrial):
- sociology was a product of time; new science was req’d to understand/manage social change
1. Scientific Revolution
Comte Law of 3 Stages; human thinking changed over time (key to understanding society)
Theological Stage (RELIGION)
Earliest humans to Middle Ages (longest stage)
World is expression of God’s will; science is a means to discover God’s intentions
Concluded w/ Renaissance and Enlightenment (science now explained world)
Metaphysical Stage
Understanding of truth; relationship b/w mind and matter
Ppl questioned/challenged everything (including Church)
Assumed ppl could understand/explain universe through own insight/reflection
Tried to experience world through abstractions emotion, beauty, etc
Artists, musicians, poets, etc use abstractions to inspire or capture insight into
human condition
Positive Stage
World interpreted by science; society guided by rules of observation, experimentation,
and logic
began to emerge in Comte’s lifetime
Criticisms of Law of 3 Stages
Assumes current way of thinking is the best it can get; self-serving
Positivism all understanding is based on science
Assumption #1: “There exists an objective and knowable reality.”
Reality is objective; beyond individual interpretation/manipulation
We have capacity to understand the world through science
Assumption #2: “Since all sciences explore the same, singular reality, over time all
sciences will become more alike.”
There is only one correct explanation for physical/social worlds, therefore all
boundaries will be nonexistent (only once science in the future)
Assumption #3: “There is no room in science for value judgments.”
All science is explaining the same reality (from diff. perspectives), therefore there
is no good or bad science all further our understanding of the world
Anti-Positivism -> knowledge/understanding is result of human subjectivity
Assumption #1: “While hard science may be useful for exploring the physical world, the
social world CANNOT be understood solely through numbers and formulas.”
Formulas/numbers only have meaning when we assign social value to them; they
have relative importance
Assumption #2: “All sciences will NOT merge over time and no single methodological
approach can reach a complete understanding of our world.”
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