Study Guides (238,466)
Canada (115,150)
Sociology (238)
SOC 101 (105)

Soc 101 Readings for Test 2.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Waterloo
SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

th February 15 2013 SOC 101 Readings for Test 2: Chapter 6, 7 and 9 Chapter 6: Socialization and Social Interaction Becoming Human -Personalities: an individual’s relatively stable pattern of behaviours and feelings -Nature versus Nurture: the debate between whether biological forces or environment define the person they become -Socialization: the lifelong process by which we learn our culture, develop our personalities and become functioning members of society -Social Interaction: the ways in which people interact in social settings, recognize each person’s subjective experiences and/or intentions The Nature Argument  Most of our behaviour is determined by our genetic makeup  Sociobiology: a science that uses evolutionary theory and genetic inheritance to examine the biological roots of social behavior  Evolutionary psychology: a relabelled form of sociobiology that argues that Darwinian inheritance can explain contemporary human behaviour The Nurture Argument  Anna: 5 year old girl in 1938 found tied to a chair kept in the attic, out of wedlock, could barely stand on her own and couldn’t talk. After being worked with, at 10 she had the mental capacity of a 2 ½ year old Development of Self -Self: one’s identity comprising a set of learned values and attitudes that develops through social interaction and defines one’s self-image -Self-image: an introspective composition of various features and attributes that people see themselves as having Imaging how others see us: C.H. Cooley  Looking glass self: what we think of ourselves is influences by how we imaging other people see ourselves  To be aware of one’s self we must be aware of society  Sociologists could not hope to understand the social world until they could project themselves into the minds of others and see the world as those people did- the essence of the sociological imagination and sociological perspective Understanding Ourselves and Others: G.H. Mead  The self is composed of two complementary elements  I: the element of self that is spontaneous, creative, impulsive and often unpredictable  Me: the socialized element of one’s self  Significant others: people we want to impress or gain approval from  Generalized others: a compilation of attributes association with the average members of society; represents an individual’s appreciation that other members of society behave within certain socially accepted guidelines and rules  Role-taking: assuming the position of another to better understand that person’s perspective  Mead stages of child’s development o Preparatory Stage (birth-3): through positive and negative reinforce children begin to develop the I but the me is also being developed in the background o Play Stage (3-5): me continues to grow because they want positive reinforcement from significant others o Game Stage (elementary school years)  Primary socialization: occurs when people learn the attitudes, values and appropriate behaviors for individuals in their culture  Secondary socialization: follows primary socialization and occurs through participation in more specific groups with defined roles and expectations Double Consciousness: W.E.B Dubois  Double-consciousness: a sense of self that is defined in part through the eyes of others Agents of Socialization -Agents of Socialization: Individual, groups and social institutions that together help people to become functioning members of society Families  Gender Stereotyping: the assignments of beliefs to men and women respectively that are not based on fact  Socio-economic status: social status as determined by family income, parents’ education level, parents’ occupations’ and the families social standings within the community  Cultural capital: social assets (values, beliefs, attitudes, competencies) that are gained from one’s family and help one to succeed in life Peers  Peer groups: consist of people who are closely related in age and share similar interests  Abrams, Rutland, Pelletier and Ferrell: how children exclude others from peer groups as a way of asserting their membership with the in group Education  Hidden curriculum: the unconscious, informal and unwritten norms and rules that reinforce and maintain social conventions Mass Media  Mass media: forms of communication produced by a few people for consumption by the masses  Historically television is the most influential  Now internet is emerging as the most influential Socialization Across the Life Course -Life course: socialization that occurs throughout one’s adult life -Birth cohort: all of the people who are born during a given period of time and therefore experience historical events at the same points in their lives. Early to Middle Adulthood Later Adulthood  Empty Nest Syndrome: the depression that some mothers experience when their children have left home Old Age  Means-tested programs: social programs based on need  Universal plans: social programs provided to everyone Socialization into Dying and Death  Gerontology: the scientific study of old age and dying  Elisabeth Kubler-Ross stages to deal with a person’s own morality: 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance  Dying Trajectories: the courses that dying takes in both social and psychological senses  Robert Kastenbaum challenges Kubler-Ross o No independence evidence exists to support the assertion that people move from stage one through to stage five o A person may experience emotions and reactions from different stages at the same time challenges the premise that there are definable stages in the grieving process o The totality of the person’s life is neglected in favour of the supposed stages of dying o The tremendous diversity of resources pressures and characteristics of the dying individual are not taken into account  Euthanasia: the deliberate ending of the life of a person who has an incurable or painful disease  Assisted Suicide: intentional killing oneself with help from others Resocialization: The Total Institution -Resocialization: the profound change or complete transformation of a person’s personality as a result of being placed in a situation or an environment dedicated to changing his or her previous identity -Total Institution: a setting in which people are isolated from society and supervised by an administrative staff -Erving Goffman five types of total institutions:  Institutions that help people who are incapable of taking care of themselves and can be considered harmless (orphanage)  Institutions that take care of people who are incapable of looking after themselves and pose a threat to the community, albeit an unintended one (mental hospital)  Institutions that protect the community from those who would do harm to it (prison)  Institutions that preform instrumental tasks that require unique work arrangements (army camps)  Institutions that act as retreats from the rest of the world and serve as locations for religious training (monasteries) -Modification of the Self: the first stage of the resocialization process in which a person’s existing identity is stripped away. Social Inequality What is Social Stratification? -Social Stratification: a society’s hierarchical ranking of people into social classes -Social Class: a group of individuals sharing a position in a social hierarchy, based on both birth and achievement -Social Status: an individual’s position within the class structure -Meritocracy: a system of rewards based on personal attributes and demonstrated abilities -Social mobility: movement between social classes -Intergenerational Mobility: the comparison of adult children’s social class to that of their parents -Intragenerational Mobility: Status movement throughout one’s life What is Social Inequality? -Social Inequality: exists when certain attributes affect a person’s access to socially valued resources Classism -Classism: an ideology that suggests that people’s relative worth is at least partly determined by their social and economic status Blaming the Victim  Blaming the Victim: a perspective that holds individuals responsible for the negative conditions in which they live  Culture of Poverty-Oscar Lewis: a fatalistic belief system held by the poor as an adaptation to systematic discrimination  Deferred Gratification (Lewis): the ability to forgo immediate pleasures in the interest of achieving the greater rewards in the future From Perception to Policy  Huber and Form (1973): wealthy and middle class Americans saw themselves deserving of their wealth and status, result of their own skills, abilities and effort while poor blamed on structural factors like unemployment, lack of opportunity and failure to provide proper education  Newman and Smith (1999): these studies are highly influential when it comes to policy because if poverty is viewed as lack of skills, abilities and effort government will cut welfare but if they see it as a structural problem they will invest in social programing (make jobs, build schools etc.) Closed and Open Social Systems -Closed Systems: a social system in which status is based on attributes ascribed at birth -Open System: a social system in which status is based on achieved attributes. Closed Systems: Caste  Caste System: an ascribed system of hereditary class designation  India: Varna (colour) system o Four categories: Brahmin (teachers, doctors and other scholars), Kshatriya (warriors and politicians), Vaishya (merchants and artists), Shudra (workers in the service occupations) o Reincarnation: the belief associated with Eastern religion’s that one’s essence does not die and instead is reborn in another form  Japan: Burakumin (people of the village) Open Systems: Class  Class Structure: a society’s economic hierarchy that categorizes groups of people based on their socio-economic status  Intergenerational earrings: a comparison between a father’s and a son’s earnings Property and Occupational Prestige: Two Components of Inequality Property  Income: Money received annually from all sources  Wealth: net accumulated assets, including homes, land and stocks  Quintiles: a measure that divides population into five categories each representing 20% (how income is distributed) Occupational Prestige  Higher income correlated with higher prestige with a few exceptions Sociological Approaches to Social Stratification Functionalism  David-Moore thesis: The theory that social stratification is functional for society because it ensures that key social positions are held by the most capable people  Criticisms: o No guarantee that children will be as skilled or qualified as parents are o Even in the most open class systems, discrimination to who is eligible for elite positions o In the capitalist economy, salary is determined on market forces rather than work’s value o Social inequality is extreme Conflict Theory  Karl Marx: class struggle most important inspiration behind the quest for power o All of social life is influences by how people interact during the process of economic production o The interests of these two social classes are incompatible  Max Web
More Less

Related notes for SOC 101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.