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Sociology Exam review.docx

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Lecture 4: Socialization - Personalities: an individual’s relatively stable pattern of behaviors and feelings. - 2 basic approaches to understand personality: o Biological Approach o Environmental Approach - Nature Vs. Nurture: The debate between whether biological forces or environment define the person we become - Nature says actions and feelings are biological - Nurture says we are a product of socialization - Socialization: the lifelong process by which we learn our culture, develop our personalities and become functioning members of society. - Social Interaction: the ways in which people interact in social settings. The Nature Argument: - Suggests that most of our behavior is determined by our genetic makeup - Socio-biology: a science that uses evolutionary theory and genetic inheritance to examine the biological roots of social behavior. - Evolutionary psychology: a relabeled form of socio-biology that argues that Darwinian inheritance can explain contemporary human behavior. - Structure of the brain and emotions and behavior it inspires does not prohibit the mind from transcending biology. - Sociologists acknowledge that some genetic linkages exist and influence human behavior. The Nurture Argument: - Effects of social isolation: Anna, isolated from society and contact with human. - Her isolation forms other people during virtually her entire early life prevented her from developing more than a small fraction of her intellectual potential. - Social reality constructed by people every time they interact with others. - Genetic makeup (nature) gives us the capacity to be social beings but it is the process of social interaction (nurture) that enables us to develop that capacity. Development of Self - Self: one’s identity comprising a set of learned values and attitudes that develops through social interaction and defines one’s self-image. - Self Image: an introspective composition of various features and attributes that people see themselves as - Self is a key component of personality - Imagining how Others See US: C.H. Cooley o We think of ourselves is influenced by how we imagine other people see us o Be aware of yourself, you must be aware of society o Self consciousness and social consciousness are inseparable o Imagine they are people to see the world the way they see it - Understanding Ourselves and Others: G.H. Mead o Mead says self is comprised of two components: I and Me o I: Mead’s term for the element of the self that is spontaneous, creative, impulsive and often unpredictable o Me: Mead’s term for the socialized element of the self o We tend to behave differently than we do when we are with our families o Significant others: people we want to impress or gain approval from (i.e. parents) o Generalized others: a compilation of attributes associated with the average member of society; represents an individual’s appreciation that other members of society behave within certain socially accepted guidelines and rules o Role taking: assuming the position of another to be better understands that person’s perspective. Critical for empathizing with another person’s situation. - 3 stages of life: o Preparatory Stage (Birth to age three):  Imitate what others do  Do not understand the meanings, but want to please others in their lives (usually parents)  Through positive and negative reinforcement, begin to develop the I, but the me is also forming in the background. o Play Stage (ages three to five)  Learn about themselves and the society around them  Begin to assume roles of others and move beyond simple imitation and assume imagines roles of the characters they are playing.  The me continues to grow, to receive positive reinforcement from significant others  Language skills develop, so can communicate better o Game Stage (Elementary School Years)  Become increasingly proficient at taking on multiple roles at once  Begin to identify with the generalized other  Participate in complex games, playing particular roles. Teaches them to understand their individual position.  Skills developed here are readily transferred to other real life situations.  Primary socialization occurs here. When people learn the attitudes, values and appropriate behaviors for individuals in their culture  Secondary Socialization: follows primary socialization and occurs through participation in more specific groups with defined roles an expectations. Develop skills needed to fit in with various groups. - Psychosexual Development: Freud o People behave according to drives and experiences of which they are not always aware. o 3 parts:  Id: individual’s biological drives and impulses that strive for instant gratification  Superego: all the norms, values, and morals that are learned through socialization  Ego: Intermediary between the id and the superego that provides socially acceptable ways to achieve wants. o Difference is that I and me worked together, while tension between id and superego exists. - Psychosocial Development: Erickson o Culture plays a critical role o 8 stages of development that all people go through. o Reflect both individual psychological processes and social challenges that everyone faces during their lives. - Cognitive Development: Piaget o 4 stages: o Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2)  Learn world through 5 senses  Attachments formed to parents o Preoperational Stage (2-7)  Imagination while playing  Develop language skills  Assume everyone sees world as they do o Concrete operational stage (7-11)  See casual connections in people o Formal operational stage (12)  Becoming more comfortable with abstract reasoning  Can offer several solutions to a problem - Agents of Socialization - Family: o The first values and attitudes that a child embraces are generally simple reflections of his or her family’s values and attitudes o Symbolic interactionism: social learning theorist emphasize the importance of observing and imitating the behaviors, attitudes, an emotional reactions of others o Gender stereotyping: the assignment of beliefs to men and women, respectively, that are not based on fact o Families are responsible for setting socio-economic status o Socio-economic status: social status as determined by family income parent’s education level, parent’s occupations, and the family’s social standing within the community o Cultural capital: social assets (values, beliefs, attitudes, competencies) that are gained by one’s family and help one to succeed in life o Ethnic and cultural affiliations are also defined by family. - Peers o Importance of one’s friends, or peers increases during adolescence o Peer Groups: consist of people who are closely related in age an share similar interests o Research confirms that teenagers who have friends who are disruptive in school are more likely to become disruptive themselves - Education o School ideally evaluates children on what they do rather than who they are o The socialization function of education emphasizes that children learn academic content, social skills and important cultural values o Hidden curriculum: the unconscious, informal, and unwritten norms and rules that reinforce and maintain social conventions o Example conscious purpose of English is to teach you literary texts and how to interrupt, the unconscious purpose of reading all those books is to reinforce how to behave in society - Mass media o Mass media: forms of communication produced by a few people for consumption by the masses o The majority of its content reinforces competition and desire for financial wealth o When television images are reinforce by other mass media, the impact of socialization is substantial. o Internet use from home is another socialization factor that is gaining in importance - Socialization across the life course o Life course: socialization hat occurs throughout one’s adult life. o Birth Cohort: all of the people who are born during a given period of time and therefore experience historical events at the same points in their lives. o Early to middle adulthood:  Adults generally defined as those who have completed school  Later adulthood: careers, women experience nest syndrome (kids leaving home), men go through mid-life crisis o Later adulthood and old age:  Include declining health or mental faculties as a result of aging process  Based on age not health – retirement  Dying and death:  Gerontology: the scientific study of old age and aging.  Denial  Anger  Bargaining  Depression  Acceptance - Resocialization: - Profound change or complete transformation of a person’s personality as a result of being placed in a situation or an environment dedicated to changing his or her previous identity. - Total institution: a setting in which people are isolated from society and supervised by an admin staff. - 5 types: help those who are incapable of taking care of themselves and considered harmless. Help those are who a threat. Protect community. Perform instrumental tasks that require unique work arrangements. Act as retreats from the rest of the world and serve as locations of religious training. - 3 important characteristics: Admin staff supervises ass aspects of inmates’ or residents’ lives using electronic surveillance. Every activity is controlled and standardized so that formal schedules define everything that occurs. Formal rules and/or policies define everything about the inmates’ or residents’ daily lives. - 2 stages: Mortifications and the self. - Extreme – reinforces that development of a sense of self is a dynamic process that influences us each and everyday of our lives. Lecture 5: Social Inequality - Social stratification: a society’s hierarchical ranking of people into social classes - Social class: a group of individual’s sharing a position in a social hierarchy, based on both birth and achievements - Social status: An individual’s position within the class structure - Social stratification is based on few principles: 1. All societies redistribute materials and social rewards to individuals (food, money, social prestige) and those who do more receive more  Meritocracy: a system of rewards based on personal attributes and demonstrated abilities 2. The system is relatively stable over time because it transcends any single generation  Social mobility: movement between social classes, measured by comparing adult children’s status to that of their parents (its called intergenerational mobility)  Intergenerational mobility: status movement throughout one’s lifetime  As a rule social stratification has little relationship with skills an abilities 3. Social stratification is present in all known human societies, but varies in how a it expresses itself  Ex.// drug dealer and a surgeon may make the same annual salary but we give the surgeon a higher social class then the drug dealer 4. The acceptance of often unjust criteria is grounded in the dominant ideology- the set of beliefs an values that support and justify a society’s ruling class - Social Inequality o Results from collective decisions about what is important in evaluating a person or a group o No material influence on whether a person can actually do a particular job o Classism: an ideology that suggests that people’s relative worth is at least partly determined by their SES status. o Blaming the victim: individuals responsible for the negative conditions in which they live. Assumes poor need only to work harder.  Deferred gratification: the ability to forgo immediate pleasures in the interest of achieving greater rewards in the future. o Blaming the system: perspective that holds that systemic discrimination exists within the social system  Deindustrialization: the transformation of an economy from on based on manufacturing to one based on services. - Closed and Open Social Systems: o Closed systems: a social system in which status is based on attributes ascribed at birth o Open systems: a social system in which status is based on achieved attributes - Closed system: Caste - An ascribed system of hereditary class designation - A persons caste can determine who they are, what they wear, where they work and who they marry - Example: Indian and Japanese caste system - Open system: Class o Class structure: a society’s economic hierarchy that categorizes groups of people based on their socio-economic status o Socio-economic status: social position based on income, occupational prestige, and education o You can’t focus on one indicator got to look at all because solely on income an drug dealer and lawyer are the same - Property o Good indicator of where someone resides in the class structure o Two categories of property:  Income: money received annually from all sources  Wealth: net accumulated assets, include homes, land and stocks  Quintiles: a measure that divides population into five categories, each representing 20 percent - Occupational Prestige o Income is correlated to occupational prestige there are some exceptions o I.e. Bartenders make more per year then some carpenters and social workers o Occupations dominated by women or people of minority tend to be less paid and less prestige o Higher occupational prestige require university degrees - Functionalism: o Davis-Moore Thesis: the theory that social stratification is functional for society because it ensures that key social positions are held by the most capable people o Surgeons get paid more then gardeners because of the higher level of skill and training o According to functionalist in order to attract most capable and skilled people into important and demanding occupations the rewards must be high enough to compensate them for their time and effort o Four criticism of davis-moore thesis:  Parents and children have the same social status when children are not as skilled as their parents  There is discrimination in terms of who is eligible to assume elite positions  The capitalist economy determines the salary of a given occupation not on the basis of the work’s value but rather through market forces o Social inequalities is extreme, CEOs make tons and so do singers and hockey players - Conflict Theory: o Society that contains social classes is simply a manifestation of competition between those who have social power and those who do not o Karl Marx: believed that class struggle was the most important inspiration behind the historical transformation of societies. Believed that the social life is influenced by how people interact during the process of economic production. o Bourgeoisie – want to keep their money and power. Proletariat – wants to get as much money as possible for their labor. o Weber: Classless society is not inevitable and social stratification is at some level at least unavoidable and necessary. Class based on economic inequalities. Status groups are a group of people who share similar social status and lifestyles. Social inconsistency occurs when an individual occupies several differently ranked statuses at the same time. - Symbolic Interactionism: o Interested in looking at how people interpret and construct their responses to class inequality o Status symbols: material indicators that demonstrate a person’s social and economic position o Conspicuous consumption: the purchase of expensive goods simply because they are valuable not because there is any innate satisfaction in them (ie paying $100 for a designer t shirt) o Two other key concepts to show hoe people communicate their social wealth:  Conspicuous Leisure: the demonstration of one’s high social status through forms of leisure  Conspicuous waste: the disposal of valuable goods to demonstrate wealth - Feminist Theory: o Considers how the dominant perspective permeates our society’s evaluation of what is deemed to be valuable and important o Feminists investigation to social inequality:  Recognizing working women within capitalism  Investigating the role of class position in determining one’s view of the world o Double ghetto: A situation in which women who have full-time jobs outsie the home often work another “shift” when they get home o Feminist also view that social class is where most struggle within society happens and this is where most people form important memories and life experiences that help define who they are - Canadian Class System: o Erik Olin Wright focuses on three important forms of social control:  Economic ownership that entails real control over the economic surplus  Command of the physical means of economic production  Supervisory control over the workers - The Upper class o Two types of rich populations; there are old rich (rich over generations) and “new rich” (just got money) o Upper class use to be just protestants of British decent but now its opening up to more cultures - The upper-middle class o Upper middle class generally consist of people working in professional careers o They live in nice homes, drive nice cars, and take holidays - The lower middle class o Made up of managers, small business operators, senior executive assistants o These people at least have a diploma or degree - The working class o 30% of Canadians are in working class o Most members of this class are skilled and semi-skilled manual workers o They go to high school and some go onto further education - The Under class o Long term chronic poverty in which they have little ability to realize their potential since they are in a constant struggle to meet their immediate needs o Low-income cut-off: the level of income at which a household spends 55 percent or more of its gross income on basic necessities - Factors influencing social inequality in Canada o Gender: women earn less then men, sociologist use the phrase “feminization of poverty: the universal phenomenon whereby women are more susceptible to poverty than are men” o Work status: poverty is determined whether people have jobs or not o Family structure: single parent families are more likely to be in poverty o Age: people in late teens and early twenties are most likely to live in poverty o Education: those who have not completed high school are more likely to be in poverty o Visible minority status: there is a wage gap between white and non white workers o Location: people living in urban areas are more likely to be in poverty and according to province - Global Inequality: - Simon Kuznet: an approach that predicts how social inequality changes as societies develop economically - Kuznet’s curve: a graphic representation of the relationship between a society’s economic development and its social inequality - The curve says that societies that become more developed become more unequal until early phases of the industrial revolution, after which inequality tended to decline Lecture 6: Education - Education: responsible for the transmission of particular knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes deemed desirable in a given society o Formal education: Regulated and organized o Informal education: learning activities that people seek outside of formally structured educational spaces o Both contribute to social reproduction: stressing societal norms and values, education works to socialize next generations - Residential schools o Earliest forms by missionaries and religious orders; no formal teachers; ensuring cultural survival. o Aboriginals- organic education (one tailored to the practical needs of families, clans, and communities and took place in communities amid the natural environment: no formal teachers) – ensures cultural survival  Sent to residential schools: can’t see family, speak own language, undergone abuse. - Mass education: o Free, compulsory education, up till age 16 o Girls studied domestic science courses, while men studied vocational training and higher education for the labor market o Segregation of boys and girls within school - Massification: the mass increase in post-secondary enrolment, in contrast to the smaller numbers that once constituted an elite group - Credential inflation: the ever-increasing cache of educational credentials required for a particular job - Functionalist theory: o Function as social systems (need to reflect the values and interests of the society is which they operate o Allocation: assigning grades, etc. to serve as a sorting mechanism for future roles in society o Socialization: school teaches students how to function in the larger society (punctuality, respond to authority o Hidden curriculum: refers to the informal or less overt aspects of schooling that nonetheless influence and shape students by teaching them to be obedient, to value competitiveness, and so forth o Criticized due to Meritocracy: resources are distributed fairly on the basis of merit - Conflict theory (understand schooling as serving the capitalist aims of profit and compliant workers o Perceived as instrumental in preparing future conformers and thus relinquishing their revolutionary possibilities for human development and progress o Correspondence principle: schools are structured to reflect workplaces - Symbolic Interactionist Theory (tend to examine the meanings attached to school practices o Explore the symbolic aspects of education o Self-fulfilling prophecy (teacher labeled troublemaker, more likely to become one/ labeled hard worker, more likely to work hard) - Feminist theory (concerned in 1970s about sexism embedded in both school texts and classroom practices o Hegemonic masculinity, and emphasized femininity o Chilly climate: refers to the lack of warmth or encouragement; female students and professors have claimed to feel like outsiders in the halls of academe - Anti-racist approaches (action-oriented, educational and political strategy for institutional and systemic change that addresses the issue of racism and the interlocking systems of social oppression o Difference from multiculturalism: sees race and racism as central to how we claim, occupy, and defend spaces - Cultural Theory o Cultural capital: explores how people can use particular cultural resources for economic and social success (encompasses things like interpersonal skills, habits, manners, education credentials, tastes, and so forth. Ex. feeling ease in an expensive restaurant - Post-structural theory - Higher education: Contemporary Issues o Research Funding, Quality and Accountability, Academic Integrity - McDonaldization: the notion that universities are expected to function in ever more efficient ways, with a high degree of predictability and standardization Lecture 7: Religion - Religion: a set of organized beliefs about the supernatural or spiritual worlds and their associated ceremonies that guides people’s behavior and joins them into communities of believers. - Faith: A belief system based on conviction that does not require objective evidence to substantiate its claims. - E.B. Taylor: Religions evolve from simple and primitive to modern and complex over time. - Stages of evolution: o Animism – supernatural beings or spirits inhabit living things and inanimate objects o Polytheism – society recognizes a set of independent supernatural beings or gods. o Monotheism – religion identifies with a single, all-powerful, all knowing god - Social scientists – religions do not progress along a simple and universal line of development. - Civil religion – system in which sacred symbols are integrated into the broader society regardless of individual religious affiliations. In God We Trust - Types of Religious Groups: o New Religious Movements – informal group, no defined structure, authoritarian and charismatic leaders, disband once leader dies, come and go o Sect – small religious body with exclusive or voluntary membership, hostile to the larger society. o Church – institution that brings together a moral community of believers in formal worship and integrates itself within larger secular world.  Ecclesia – state religion – ascribed membership, catholic church in Italy  Denomination – socially accepted religious body that has bureaucratic characteristics similar to those of the church. Self-governing. - Religion in Canada - Largely Christian in nature but immigration affects religious distribution - Functionalism: o Durkheim - all religions originate in society, separating the world into profane (secular aspects of life) and the sacred (things we ritualize and have emotional connections) o Totem – objet of special significance o Collective conscience – the group awareness that manifests itself, in part through religion o Religion was a strong source of social power that could inspire collective action o Collective effervescence – expressed when a social group achieves a new an dynamic expression of the group’s will and can motivate rapid changes to the social structure o Functions of religion: joins people in communities of believers, promotes stability, provides social identity, social control, moral standards of behavior, purpose and meaning to lives, social service function. o Some limitations of functionalist (Durkheim’s) interpretation of religion: 1. Religion can be dysfunctional 2. Some religions strict individuals the right to think for themselves 3. Religions must compete with other social institutions and categories that are sources of personal identity 4. It fails to recognize the roles that social class, power, and gender play in the development and maintenance of religion (a component that conflict theorists explain religion) 5. It suggests very little opportunity for individual agency since it is considered collective conscience - Conflict Theory: o 3 assumptions:  Religion is socially constructed and built upon economic relationships  Diminishes feelings of frustrations resulting from the forces of alienation  Used by the social, political, and economic elite to control the workers o Marx – religion is a form of social control that dulls the pain of oppression for the proletariat and prevents them from seeing the world as it truly exists. o By studying and critiquing religion one is able to uncover the problems at the root of social relations o By focusing on the future, religion helps distract people from the inequalities and difficulties that exist today, so to understand religion one must understand social, economic, and political landscape of the people o Limitations of Marx’s insights:  Marx’s assumption that religion supports and maintains the status quo in society is challenged by Max Weber who says religion can be inspiration behind great social change  Predestination: the doctrine that god alone chooses (elects) who is saved  Weber argues that protestants saw their resulting economic success as evidence that they were following their “calling” and doing god’s will  Some contemporary religious movements actually challenge the rich and powerful by advocating income redistribution in society  Liberation theology: a movement by religious fundamentalists who advocate a literal interpretation of the Bible to promote greater social equity o Sense of community that some people find in religion is a positive force, inspiring many to help the less fortunate and to participate in political movements - Symbolic Interactionism: o Important source of rituals and symbols that help to define people’s perceptions of their social world o Rituals help reinforce group membership, bonding, regulate moral behavior, empower o 3 phases of conversion: o Questioning phase – wonder whether there is more to life than what they have experienced so far. o Incorporation – the ideas of the new group into their own world o Intense interaction – with the new group where the initiates time is consumed by duties and obligations of the new group o To understand ones identity is influenced by religion, a brief analysis of what happened when one coverts into a new religion shows the different social environments change a person’s self- perception. o Symbolic interactionists view religion from a micro perspective that attempts to understand individuals thoughts, feelings, and motivations that reflect the role religion plays in their everyday lives - Feminist Theory: o Stanton: Woman’s Bible – correcting biblical interpretation biased against women. It’s written by men and constitutes a clear expression of the patriarchal culture o Women needed a different belief system given that Christianity is based fundamentally on the of women and cannot adequately represent the ideals of liberty justice and equality - Post- Modern Theory: o Foucault – organize religions are best understood as networks of power that dominate their subjects through tradition and institutional authority o Modernity focuses on the pursuit of truth, reason, an social progress o Secularization: the process by which developed societies move away from explanations based on religion to ones based on science, rationality, and logic - Christianity o Began when Jesus was born to Virgin Mary and her husband Joseph. o Christianity exists in many churches, denominations, and sects - Islam o Second largest and fastest growing religion o Based on a prophecy, prophethood, and a sacred text like Christianity o Mohammad is the important one o Theocracy: a form of government in which a god or other supernatural being is seen as the supreme civil ruler o The sunni and Shiite groups are generally fit the efinition associated with denomination - Judaism o One of the oldest religions in the world, and one the smallest o Torah is the sacred text o Movements in Judaism are divisions within Judaism - Hinduism o Oldest religion and third-largest int he world o Hinduism does not proselytize (attempt to convert members of other beliefs to their own) o Polytheistic religions and has no one sacred text o Dharma: the moral responsibilities and guidelines that define an entire way of life o Nirvana: the state of spiritual perfection - Buddhism o Grew out of Hinduism o Karma: the belief in cause and effect in a person`s life: you reap what you sow o Buddhist believe you can break the cycle of rebirth no matter what caste you are - Confucianism o Two important virtues are:  Jen: Confucian virtue of possessing a benevolent and humanitarian attitude  Li: Confucian desire to maintain proper relationships and rituals that enhance the life of the individual, the family, and the state - Jehovah`s witnesses o Restorationist belief systems: assert that contemporary Christianity no longer reflects its foundational ideas - Fundamentalism: o Fundamentalism: a movement designed to revitalize faith by returning to tradional religious practices - Anosticism an Atheism o Agnostic: someone who thinks it is impossible to know whether god exists, but oes not deny the possibility o Atheist: someone who denies the existence of any supernatural beings or forces Lecture 8: Gender - Sex: a determination of male or female on the basis of a set of socially agreed-upon biological criteria (male or female) - Gender: social distinction between masculinity and feminity - Feminist theorist started using gender as a way of directing attention to the social realm - Emily Martin demonstrates how scientist draw away on discourses of gender to explain conception: they say the sperm is more aggressive (showing masculinity) and the egg is passive (showing demonstrating) - Feminist try to convince that biologists social assumptions share their scientific accounts - Intersexed individuals: individuals born with ambiguous genitalia (aka hermaphrodites) - Gender as socially constructed o Gender vary across cultures and across time (back in the day masculine meant wearing a frilly shirt whereas today it’s not masculine anymore) o Gender relations: organizing principles that shape and order interactions between, as well as the relative social importance of, women and man o In reality there are multiple masculinities and feminities - Transgender and Transsexual o Transgender: an umbrella term for a range of people who do not fit into normative constructions of sex and gender o This includes transsexuals and transvestites (drag queens) o Transsexual: a person who undergone sex reassignment, which may include surgeries - Hegemonic masculinity o Hegemonic masculinity: the normative ideal of dominant masculinity o Gramsci, requires men to be succe
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