SOC101 Study Guide - Credentialism And Educational Inflation, Social Inequality, Philosophes

23 views7 pages
Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101
Page:
of 7
CHAPTER 1: UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION
Values: cultural assessments that identify something as right, desirable, and moral
Political economy: the interactions of politics, government and governing, and the social and cultural
constitution of markets, institutions, and actors
Globalization: a worldwide process involving the production, distribution, and consumption of
technological, political, economic, and socio-cultural goods and services
CHAPTER 2: CLASSICAL SOCIAL THEORIES
Natural state: Hobbes’ conception of the human condition before the emergence of formal social
structures
Ideal types: classic or pure forms of a given social phenomenon (e.g., to some, the United States is an
ideal type of capitalism)
Philosophes: French philosophers during the Enlightenment period who advocated critical thinking and
practical knowledge
Organic analogy: the belief that society is like an organism with interdependent and interrelated parts
Social Darwinism: Spencer’s assertion that societies evolve according to the same principles as do
biological organisms
Laissez-faire: a point of view that opposes regulation of or interference with natural processes
Collective conscience: Durkheim’s concept highlighting the totality of a society’s beliefs and sentiments
Anomie: Durkheim’s term for a state of normlessness that results from the lack of clear goals and may
ultimately result in higher suicide rates
Mechanical solidarity: describes early societies based on similarities and independence
Organic solidarity: describes later societies organized around interdependence and the increasing
division of labour
Social action theory: Parsons’ framework attempting to separate behaviours from actions to explain why
people do what they do
Behaviours: for Parsons, the almost mechanical responses to specific stimuli
Actions: for Parsons, the results of an active and inventive process
Integration: the system needs to maintain solidarity while allowing the aspirations of subgroups
Latency: the system needs to motivate individuals to release their frustrations in socially appropriate
ways
Tension maintenance: recognizes the internal tensions and strains that influence all actors
Pattern maintenance: involves socially appropriate ways to display tensions and strains
Dialectics: Hegel’s view of society as the result of oppositions, contradictions, and tensions from which
new ideas and social change can emerge
Idealism: the belief that the human mind and consciousness are more important in understanding the
human condition than in the material world
Alienation: Marxist concept to describe the process by which workers lack connection to what they
produce and become separated from themselves and other workers
Exploitation: the difference between what workers are paid and the wealth they create for the owner
Superstructure: all of the things that society values and aspires to once its material needs are met (e.g.,
religion, politics, law)
False consciousness: belief in and support of the system that oppresses you
Class consciousness: recognition of domination and oppression and collective action to address it
Thomas theorem: assertion that what people define as real are real in their consequences
Verstehen: Weber’s term for a deep understanding and interpretation of subjective social meanings
Formal sociology: Simmel’s theory that argues that different human interactions once isolated from
their content, can be similar in form
Sympathetic introspection: Cooley’s concept of the value of putting yourself into other persons’ shoes
and seeing the world as they do
CHAPTER 3: MODERN SOCIAL THEORIES
Hegemony: domination through ideological control and consent
Discourse: a system of meaning that governs how we think, act, and speak about a particular thing or
issue
Discipline: the means by which we become motivated to produce particular realities
Liberal humanist assumption: the belief that everyone should be treated equally and recognized as
human beings
Imperialism: the conquest of land, resources, and people’s labour; the practices and attitudes of
colonizers
Colonialism: the concrete and ideological effects of imperialism within colonized territories
Orientalism: Said’s concept of discourse of power that creates a false distinction between a superior
West and an inferior East
Disembedding mechanism: a mechanism that aids in shifting social relations from local to global
contexts
Expert systems: systems of knowledge on which we rely but with which we may never be directly in
contact
CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH, METHODOLOGY, AND ETHICS
Operational definition: description of how a variable is measured
CHAPTER 5: CULTURE
Folkways: informal norms that suggest customary ways of behaving
Mores: norms that carry a strong sense of social importance and necessity
Sanction: a penalty for norm violation or a reward for norm adherence
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: the assertion that language determines thought (also known as linguistic
determinism)
Subculture: a group within a population whose values, norms, folkways, or mores set them apart from
the mainstream culture
Counterculture: a type of subculture that strongly opposes the widely held cultural patterns of the larger
population
Cultural adaptation: the process by which environmental pressures are addressed through changes in
practices, traditions and behaviours
CHAPTER 6: SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL INTERACTION
Primary socialization: occurs when people learn the attitudes, values, and appropriate behaviours for
individuals in their culture
Secondary socialization: follows primary socialization and occurs through participation in more specific
groups with defined roles and expectations
Id:Freud’s term for an individual’s biological drives and impulses that strive for instant gratification
Superego: Freud’s term for all of the norms, values, and morals that are learned through socialization
Ego: Freud’s term for intermediary between the id and he superego that provides socially acceptable
ways to achieve wants
Cultural capital: social assets (values, beliefs, attitudes, competencies) that are gained from one’s family
and help one to succeed in life
Birth cohort: all of the people who are born during a given period of time and therefore experience
historical events at the same points in their lives
Mortifications of the self: the first stage of resocialization process, in which a person’s existing identity is
stripped away
CHAPTER 7: SOCIAL INEQUALITY
Meritocracy: a system of rewards based on personal attributes and demonstrated abilities

Document Summary

Values: cultural assessments that identify something as right, desirable, and moral. Political economy: the interactions of politics, government and governing, and the social and cultural constitution of markets, institutions, and actors. Globalization: a worldwide process involving the production, distribution, and consumption of technological, political, economic, and socio-cultural goods and services. Natural state: hobbes" conception of the human condition before the emergence of formal social structures. Ideal types: classic or pure forms of a given social phenomenon (e. g. , to some, the united states is an ideal type of capitalism) Philosophes: french philosophers during the enlightenment period who advocated critical thinking and practical knowledge. Organic analogy: the belief that society is like an organism with interdependent and interrelated parts. Social darwinism: spencer"s assertion that societies evolve according to the same principles as do biological organisms. Laissez-faire: a point of view that opposes regulation of or interference with natural processes. Collective conscience: durkheim"s concept highlighting the totality of a society"s beliefs and sentiments.