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Sociology Exam Review.docx

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SOC 101
Sara Cumming

Sociology Exam Review 12/13/2012 6:42:00 PM Terms:  Sex: a determination of male or female on the basis of a set of socially agreed-upon biological criteria  Transsexual: a person who undergoes sex reassignment, which may include surgeries  Hegemonic Masculinity: the normative ideal of dominant masculinity  Chivalry Hypothesis: Belief that female offenders are treated more leniently by law enforcement officials as a result of the latter‟s traditional chivalrous attitude toward women  Deviance: actions that violate social norms and may or may not be against the law  Sexual Identity: Broad term including masculinity or femininity, our knowledge of our bodies, our sexual histories, and our sexual preferences  Bisexuality: Attracted to both men and women  Serial Monogamy: relationship pattern that has one monogamous relationship following another  Exception Fallacy: Drawing conclusions about an entire group based on observations of individuals  Gender: Social distinctions between masculinity and femininity  Transgender: An umbrella term for a range of people who do not fit into normative constructions of sex and gender  Moral Entrepreneur: Person who influences or changes the creation or enforcement of a society‟s moral code.  Crime: Behaviours and actions that require social control and social intervention, codified in law  Sexual Orientation: Individual‟s sexual and emotional attraction to a person of a particular sex  Heterosexism: The holding up of heterosexuality, rendering all other sexualities as abnormal and deviant  Polyamory: Mutually acknowledged emotional, sexual, or romantic connections with multiple partners  Mores: norms that carry a strong sense of social importance and necessity  Values: beliefs about ideal goals and behaviours that serve as standards for social life  Norms: Culturally defined rules that outline appropriate behaviours  Folkways: Informal norms that suggest customary ways of behaving  Racialization: process of attributing complex characteristics to racial categories  Ethnicity: A multi-dimensional concept that includes one‟s minority or majority status, ancestry, language, and often religious affiliation  Intersexed: Individuals born with ambiguous genitalia  Emphasized Femininity: The normative ideal of femininity, based on women‟s compliance with their subordination to men  Moral Panic: Reaction of a group based on the false or exaggerated perception that some group or behavior threatens the well-being of society  Homophobia: Irrational fear or hatred of homosexuals that can lead to discrimination, harassment, and violence against them  Monogamy: Coupling of two people, excluding intimate involvement of others  Public order crimes: (Victimless) crimes such as prostitution gambling, and pornography that are believed to run contrary to moral principles  Discrimination: Actions that deny or grant advantages to members of a particular group  Race: Historically, group of people that was physically and genetically distinguished from other groups  Sexuality: Includes sexual orientation, identity and sex acts, sex lives and commodification of sex  Democratic Racism: advocates equality while perpetuating minority differentiation and oppression  Individual Discrimination: individual advantages/ disadvantages another because of that person‟s group membership  Direct Institutional Discrimination: Institution employs policies or practices that are discriminatory against a person or group  Indirect institutional Discrimination: Individuals treated differently based on unlawful criterion, even though these actions were never intended to be discriminatory  Promiscuity: derogatory word to describe someone who has assumed to have had too many sexual partners  At-Risk: who is at risk of becoming a criminal – media  Fear- Gender Paradox: Women experience higher rates of fear of being victimized even though men are more likely to be victims of crime  Social Purity Movement: sought to abolish prostitution and other sexual activities considered immoral Theories: Functionalism  Social world is a dynamic system of interrelated and interdependent parts o Social structures help fulfill wants and desires defined by social values o Use organic analogy: view society as being similar to an organism o Structures that make up society work together for the good of the collective Conflict Theory  Society is grounded on inequality and competition over scarce resources that ultimately result in conflict which often inspires social change i. Power is the core of all social relationships and is scarce and unequally divided among members of society ii. Social values and the dominant ideology are vehicles by which the powerful promote their own interests at the expense of the weak  Natural or physical inequality – established by nature  Moral or political inequality – based on human classification of valuable things o Bourgeoisie (rich) and Proletariat (poor) -> class conflict Symbolic Interactionism  Emphasize that society and all social structures are nothing more than the creations of the interacting people and can therefore be changed Western Marxism  More independent and critical forms of Marxism (forces if production influences organization of society and people‟s experiences of that society) o Hegemony – domination through ideological control and consent Feminist Theory  First Wave: recognizing women as equal people  Second Wave: Women are coherent social group with common experiences  Third Wave: Women are a diverse group that should be represented by many voices Post-structuralism  Enlightenment thinking, scientific knowledge is the key to human freedom, but this cannot stand outside of power relationships o How knowledge is socially produced Queer Theory  Difference is basis of intellectual endeavors, sexual identity (desire, language and identity) Post-colonial Theory  Political and cultural effects of colonialism (effects of imperialism) Anti-Racist Theories  Critical race theory: contemporary social situations through a lens of historical racism  Theorizing Whiteness: white is a racial identity Globalization  Increasing interconnectedness influences socio-cultural and political process TOPICS: Gender  Thomas Beattie: The pregnant man  Gender expectations begin at birth: parent talk to their girls and leave their boys alone. Boys are punished more often than girls  In education: the Hidden Curriculum is when teachers interact with boys and girls differently in the classroom – Chilly Climate (women have to work harder to be noticed as being as accomplished as their male counterparts in post-secondary institutions)  Gender Divisions are reinforced by all forms of media  How we shape and interoperate our bodies accomplished socially  Over the past few years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of employed women  The Gendered Labour Force- Occupations segregated into men‟s and women‟s jobs, but women hold more lower-paying jobs than men  The gendered wage gap - 2002 women working full-time earned an average of $36,000 while employed men working the same schedule earned $50,500. By 2008 women working full-time earned on average 70.5% of what men earned Gap is greater for university-educated women who earned only 68% of what men earn  Socially constructed – understanding ideas about appropriate gender vary across cultures and across time o Masculinity and femininity are dependent on society and its views – frilly shirts, makeup and wigs were masculine in 17 th century France o Gender relations act as organizing principles in society, they shape social importance and worth of men and women  Hegemonic Masculinity: most socially endorsed form of masculinity (dominance) – aggressiveness, control, strength and ambition, not valuing women. Tied to heterosexuality and homophobia.  Functionalist Theory: Women and men perform separate specialized and complimentary roles to maintain cohesiveness  Conflict Theory: Focus on examining gender differences in access to and control of scarce resources  Symbolic Interactionism: Interested in the meanings of male and female of masculinity and femininity- “doing” gender (West and Zimmerman)  Feminist Theory: Gender is socially constructed, identify the ways in which institutionalized norms limit women‟s behavior and opportunities  Post-Structuralist Theory: Gender cannot be thought of as having some essential basis, No authentic femininity and masculinity rooted in male and female bodies, Gender is a performance (Judith Butler) Race and Racialization  Race – race is myth and reality, it is socially constructed  Ethnicity – cultural classifications  Social construction of Ethnicity – socially created ethnic group based on a common ancestry, religion, language and majority or minority status  Racialization – the process of attributing complex characteristics, like intelligence, to racial categories  Dominant and Minority Groups – dominant and subordinate (advantage and power relationships)  Components of Racial and Ethnic Conflict o Prejudice 1. Stereotypes 2. Ethnocentrism o Discrimination 1. De Jure (legal) 2. De facto (informal)  Components of Racial and Ethnic Conflict o Racism  Overt or Polite or subliminal or institutionalized or systemic  Functionalist Theory: 1. Assimilation: a process by which members of subordinate racial or ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture 2. Ethnic Pluralism: is the co-existence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society  Interactionists: o How language creates prejudice  Conflict Theories: o Internal Colonialism  Forced to exist in a society not their own  Kept out of economic and political mainstream  Subjected to attack on their culture Families  Oldest and most durable social institution, born into it  Constitutive interrelated system of rules, roles and relationships for meeting universal needs for security, sustenance and survival  Meets the needs of society and the individual, but is not always a haven in a heartless world  Family means different things to different people  Communal (hulterite) – isolated from parents from the age of 3 and raised by the community  Natives in Canada, relatives in Canada – social workers see it as incorrect (60s scoop – neglecting children that are different; LGBT etc.) o Dominant family form – NUCLEAR FAMILY  Untra
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