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Final Exam Sociology 101 (Globalization).docx

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Globalization What is Globalization?  Term globalization is used to describe the worldwide exchange of money, goods, and services as well as the socio-cultural changes that occur with increasing trade and human contact  The entanglement of diverse cultures and economies  Responsible for severing social arrangements based on geographic location as a result of accelerating transnational flows of people, images, and information  Continuation of international economic integration that began with European colonial expansion The Origins of Globalization  According to Abu-Lughod, an international trading economy existed between Western Europe and China more than 700 years ago  Wallerstein argues that since early empires spent most of their resources on supporting a large military, they simply cannot afford to become global empires  True economic integration became possible with only emergence of capitalism o Colonization  The political, economic, and cultural domination of countries in Asia, Africa, and the Americas by European countries starting in the sixteenth century  Starting in sixteenth century, Western European nations developed economic systems that were based on the market principles, whereby goods and services were produced and exchanged for profit  The shift in land ownership during the time was one of the primary inspirations behind the emergence of capitalism  Many Europeans began colonizing the America, Africa, and Asia to feed the growing desire for foreign goods  Globalization today is a rather recent phenomenon  Giddens points that globalization today and different than it was back than in 1970  Back before 1970, national economies were defines by the exchange of goods, where much of economy today is in the service sector and the knowledge of the economy  Giddens argues “we live in a world of transformation, affecting almost every aspect of what we do Globalization Today  Economies today are more independent and integrated  The result of integration is that the power of individual nation-states to determine their own economic, political, and cultural destinies is declining  Advances in communication technology has made the world a small place  Global development has created vast chasm between rich and poor Defining Global Stratification  Stratification occurs when the society organizes people into a hierarchical system according to their social class- countries can also be places in a global ranking system  Global order is defined according to the countries’ wealth or poverty  “First Word” is to buy into the assumption that it is the best, it has finished first, and it has the gold standard  Second World is used to describe the countries of the former Soviet Union o Command economy  An economy in which the state, rather than the market forces, manages the production and distribution of goods  In Parag Khanna book “The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order” suggests that the role of these countries will become increasing important in the coming years  Rich industrialized countries traditionally have been referred to as being developed, while poor countries have been called undeveloped, underdeveloped, or developing o Developed countries  Wealthy, industrialized countries o Undeveloped countries  Countries with poor economies; problematically implies a lack of economic talent or exposure o Underdeveloped countries  Countries that have yet to industrialize, or that have been intentionally restricted in their development by developed nations o Developing countries  Countries considered to be on the road to industrialization  Sociologists will generally prefer the terms Global North rather than First World, and Global South rather than Third World  The principle is that most economic prosperity has occurred in the Northern Hemisphere and the most economic hardship has occurred in the Southern Hemisphere Global North o Global North  Weathly industrialized countries in the northern hemisphere (previously referred to as the First World  Includes countries such as Western Europe, Canada, United States, Australia, and Japan  As a rule, states in the Global North are democratic and technologically advanced, have a high standard of living, and experience very low population growth  Have access to health care and clean water, and exist within stable political structures  Colonization allowed countries in the Global North to dominate and alter the existing economic, political, and cultural structures in their colonies for their own gain Global South  Poor countries in the southern hemisphere (previously referred to as the Third World)  Include poor countries such as Asia, South America, and Africa  Countries attempted to achieve development and prosperity through a third method- one between capitalism and socialism  Colonialism and globalization constructed dependence as a way of achieving the Global North’s own ends  Are less powerful, both economically and politically, than Global North o Newly industrialized countries (NICS)  Poor countries that are beginning to industrialize eg. India, Asia, and Latin America  Brazil and Mexico are considered NICs Factors Contributing to Globalization Technological Change  Technological innovations have accelerated globalization which have enables worldwide trade  Most important worldwide trades is container shipping  While shipping was important for transporting goods, the emergence of cost-effective worldwide air travel was instrumental in promoting social and cultural change Political Change  Collapse of Soviet Union influenced the rapid pace of globalization  After collapse only capitalism and dem0cracy were the only viable economic and political options for participating on the world stage  Giddens argues that the Soviet Union “with its emphasis upon state-run enterprise and heavy industry could not compete in the global electronic economy”  Griswold claims that globalization enhances spread of capitalism and also speads the Western ideal of democracy Economic Change  Most commonly associated with the rise of globalization of expanding trade and the emergence of international banking International Monetary Fund  Was established to promote international monetary stability to foster economic growth and to provide temporary financial assistance to poor countries  Built on the premise that for economies to prosper, barriers to trade must be removed through privatization, deregulation, lowered tariffs, and economic liberalization  Some argue that IMF was never intended to act as a vehicle to promote global economic integration but instead as a tool for the West to maintain its economic and political dominance over the rest of the world  Can exert tremendous pressure on the recipient countries to adopt its formula for economic reform  Can control the spending decisions of poor countries, and in doing so promote its own i
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