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Review notes for Soc 101 test #2

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Sociology notes Nature vs Nurture argument Naturey Most of our behavior is determined by our genetic makeup y Women and men have very different brain structures Sociobiologyy Social behavior has evolved over time to secure the survival of species y Physical and behavioural differences we see in women and men today are the result of millions of years of natural selectionEffects of social isolationy People are unable to develop normal human attributes without social interaction Understanding ourselves and others GH Meady Ipart of self that is spontaneous creative impulsive and unpredictable emotional responses y Me part of the consciousness that thinks about how to behave so that you dont embarrass yourselfy Significant others people whom we want to gain approval from y Generalized other attributes that we associate with an average member of society Behave within social accepted guidelines and rules y Role taking assuming position of other to understand a persons perspective As children grow up they pass through three distinct stages 1 Preparatory Stage birth to age threeImitationchildren begin to develop the I but me is still forming in the background 2 Play Stage ages three to five Children learn a great deal about themselves Begin to assume to roles of others me continues to grow 3 Game stage elementary to school Multiple roles at once identify with the generalized other Marks the period during which primary socialization occurs when people learn attitudes values and appropriate behaviours for individuals in their culture gain their first sense as a unique individual Secondary socialization early adolescence and beyond through participation in groups that are more specific than the broader society have defined roles and expectations examples part time jobs city wide sports teams volunteer activities Different views sociologists tend to view socialization as the culmination of a series of predictable stages that people go through that assist or hinder their adjustment to society Psychologists view socialization as a process of internal conflict and tension that people must resolve if they are to have happy and productive lives Sigmund Freud y Believed that people behave according to drives and experiences of which they are not always aware Unconscious mind is always full of memories of events experiences and traumas from childhood Defense mechanisms ways in which individuals manage painful memories y Model of human personality consists of three unique but interrelated parts Id biological drives and impulses that strive for instant gratification Unconscious selfish and unsocializedy Superego all norms values and morals that are learned through socialization y Ego intermediary between id and superego that provides socially acceptable ways to achieve wantsy Example going downtown without your wallet and feel famished As you walk by an outdoor deli you spot a sandwich left unattended Id tells you to scoop it up superego tells you not to because it would be stealing and ego tells you that a friend lives close by and suggests that maybe she could give you something to eatFreuds concepts are similar to Meads discussion of the I and me Key difference is that mead believed that the I and me worked together as a creative and dynamic force Freud focused on the tension between the id and the superegoPsychosocial development Erik Erikson y Early childhood experiences are important for personality developmenty Socialization is marked by crises throughout ones life y Culture also plays a critical role this idea unique from other sociologistsy Children from different cultures learn different values and goals and experience different kinds of parenting styles and guidance Cognitive development Jean Piaget y Children think and reason differently at different times in their lives They pass through four distinct stages o Sensorimotor stage young children learn about their world through their five senses Form attachments to parents and close caretakers o Preoperational stage children begin to use their imagination when playing and continue to develop language skills Influenced by fantasy Difficulaty conceptualizing time and assume that everyone else sees the world as they do o Concrete operational stage see causal connections in their environment and make logical conclusions about the world around them Example children can now understand that if they play with matches they could set the grass on fire o Formal operational stage around 12 years old Child becomes more confortable with abstract reasoning Can offer several alternative
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