SOC101 Study Guide - Final Guide: George Herbert Mead, Herbert Blumer, Gender Role

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Sociological Theory 02/10/2013 3:38:00 PM
Antonio Gramsci: everyone is a social theory
o Uses intellect to explain society
C.Wright Mills: connect personal problems with larger societal
Use of either/or propositions
Born unto social class but still have choice
Social theory focuses in pre-existing structure
Anthony Giddens: term juggernaut
Karl Marx: old ways destroyed before modern capitalism can be
introduced to asia
Aguste Comte: coined the term sociology
o Tried to establish religion of humanity (he was pope)
o Social thinking passes through 3 stages (laws)
1. Assumption of world governed by gods
2. Nature replaced belief of gods
3. Application of science to understand social world
Povitism: assumes there is something to discover
Herbert Spencer: society is a struggle for existence
Karl Marx: sought to discover laws of modern capitalism
Max Weber: people act according to what they intend and believe
o Subjective perspective needed
Comte: society stays the same over time but is constantly
Functionalism: if something exists over time, it performs necessary
function that is important for social reproduction
Marx: change world not understand it
o Change comes from conflict
Classical theorist
o Émile Durkheim (functionalist)
Focused on institutions, what people build together
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Simple societies held together by religious celebrations
and gift giving( collective effervescence)
People don’t live by single code of right and wrong
(ANOMIE) no collective conscious
Jean Baulliaud: modern individualism paradoxically
expressed by rights of mass consumption
Organic solidarity: everyone in society plays part in
maintaining social life
Must learn to perform consecutively
Suicide: dependent on strength or weakness of
individuals connection with society
o Karl Marx (conflict theory)
Theory explains society’s evolution
Distinguish between tradition and modernism=rise of
Serfs=lower class aristocracies=upper class
Religion pacifies workers
Opium of the people to dull the pain of opression
Alienation: separate from something
Proletariat, exploited by capitalists
Everyone has power and the ability to resist
Body is the site of control and resistance
Michael Foucault: people learn to regulate themselves
W.E.B. Du Bois and the veil of racism
o First black sociologist
o 20th century fundamental problem=colour line
Max Weber
o Studied individualism in capitalist context
o Formal rationality: calculating efficient means to obtain goal
o Authority occurs when societies follow existing customs
Charismatic: leaders influence
Dies with leader or turns into tradition
Traditional: royal family
o Disenchantment: science eroding mystery and supernatural
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o Rise of European capitalismconsequence of protestant
o Facts open to objective analysis
o Values are subjective
o Verstehen: need to understand someone subjectively
Pierre Bourdieu
o How people acquire power/control
o Cultural capital: education/knowledge
o Social capital: connections to employ power
o McDonaldization: techniques of production that become
models for others
How individuals perceive social world
Sees society from bottom-up
Intersubjectivity: how people orient behaviour to what others think
Originated in Chicago
Charles Cooley: individuals develop consciousness of their self
W.I Thomas : people entering situations have different points of
Mead: better socialized we are, the better we are able to stand in
others’ shoes and see the world from their point of view
o Multiple personality is a sense of normal
Erving Goffman: Role playing
Only a woman can understand a woman’s role
Women more successful at acquiring rights than equality
Maternal feminism: women are superior to men by nature
Nellie McClung: combined maternal feminism with politics
Marx: key to liberation is integration into productive work with men
o Friedrich Engels: Studied rise of male dominance
Women’s position of power=mothers
Patriatchy: male dominance
Marianne Weber: liberal feminism
o Seek to equalize men and women in economic structure
Dorthy Smith:
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