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SOC 222 EXAM .docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 222
Professor
Allison Chenier
Semester
Winter

Description
All Notes for Exam (Except for module 11 and 12) SOC 222 – Defining Juvenile Delinquency Course is based on the premise that juvenile delinquency is related to and emerges from multiple sources - The individual - Youths family - School - Peer Groups - Neighborhood - Social Class - Overall social environment Juvenile Delinquency - As a field of study juvenile delinquency research focuses on 2 primary areas 1. The possible internal or external factors that could explain a young persons behavior 2. Systemic responses that we employ to prevent and control antisocial behavior which includes youth crime The Scientific Study of Juvenile Delinquency Three Aspects - Nature - Extent  Frequency/duration/seriousness - Cause  Both micro and macro/includes individual social situations or environmental characteristics A theory is often defined as an interrelated set of concepts that provide an explanation for a given event or type of behavior - Characteristics of Utility and Logical Consistency o Establishing Causality  peer group and delinquency  Empirical Association: an association between the two variables (peer group and delinquency)  Temporal Order – The cause has to occur before the effect  Elimination of a spurious relationship: Causality is unaffected by the introduction of other factors that precede the cause The Definition of Delinquency - Someone who has been labeled as such by the juvenile justice system - How would you define delinquency? - Social construction is a cultural object and is affected by time and place Jesse Harding Pomeroy - Sadistic and 2 murders when he was 14 – seen as a young monster Short and Nye (1958) - Used in self report studies Deterrence and Rational Choice – Module 2.1 Deterrence and Rational Choice - Choice theorists believe that youth engage in delinquent behavior after weighing the consequences and benefits of their actions o Offenders are rational o Believe actions will be more beneficial rather than consequential - The decision making process can be influenced if there is greater likelihood of being punished for the behavior o The certainty of punishment determines action Classical School - Prior to Enlightenment (devil, demonism) Free Will  Freedom to make personal behavioral choices unencumbered by external factors - Particular individual form of evil and as a moral wrongdoing that is fed by personal choice - The extent of person seen as committing the act, and the degree to which it is seen as voluntary - Crime is a matter of choice - Individuals are responsible for behavior as they possess ftree will - Free will allows a person to have control over their actions Determinism  Behavior is caused by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences - Stealing a loaf of bread because hungry … Utilitarianism  Political and social actions should achieve the greatest good for the most people Classical school rejects determinism and embraces free will 1. A behavior decision or action is determined through individuals using free will and rational decision making in pursuit of goal 2. No crime would take place if the pain from the crime outweighed the potential gain 3. Focus is on act, or crime, not the individual Cessare Beccaria (1738-1974) - Essays on Crime and Punishment – 1764 - Use of free will by individuals to make rational choices and use of punishment as form of deterrence’s - Only exception is mitigating circumstances’ (age, mental capacity) reduce the impact on free will of behavior - Legitimacy of punishment is a result of the social contract (give up freedom, to have protection) - Fundamentally important – people behave how they find pleasure, ability to reason - Punishment should be based on degree of harm done rather than criminal intent not motivation (focus on act) - Purpose of punishment is to be a deterrence, not retribution: punishment viewed as a tool to prevent crime - Proportionate – fitting the crime Jeremy Betham (1748-1832) - An introduction to Principles of Moral Legislation 1789 - Overarching Principle: all parts of human nature are based on 2 things: pain and pleasure - Ideas based on concept of utility, to achieve the greatest happiness foe the greatest number of people - Approach to crime prevention is hedonistic calculus; to reduce crime, the pain society assigns for committing a crime must outweigh the pleasure gained from the crimainal activity (they weigh the consequences/benefits so if they see the consequences as worse they wont do it) - Agreed with beccaria by advocating punishment be certain and swift Beccaria and Bentham  Calculation of pain from punishment based on 3 things - 1. Experience with criminal punishment - 2. Knowledge of punishment imposed for certain types of behavior - 3. Awareness of what punishment has been given to spprehemnd offenders in the past Bentham – Neoclassical Theory: punishment should not vary by the circumstances or characteristics of the offender except in cases of mitigating circumstances. - Other factors constrain/chose free will - Creation of juvenile justice system – recognizes freewill of youths – still should be held accountable for actions – it is just their ability to excerise free will Relationship between culpability and free will Free will: ability to exercise control over our actions, decisions and behavior Culpability: actus reus, mens rea Condition of degree of determinism Summary - Humans are rational actors - Humans freely choose behavior based on rational calculations - Hedonistic Calculus (weigh benefits/consequences) - Risk of apprehension, seriousness of punishment, opportunity of criminal act, immediate criminal gain - Choice is directed by maximizing individual pleasure and minimizing pain - Choice can be controlled through punishments, with the correct amount of potential pain for violations of the social contract - Punishment is only effective if swift, severe and immediate Rational Choice Theory - Exercises in given circumstances - All actions occur out of self-interest - Perceived opportunity - Methodological Individualism: calculate which works best for them - Offender risks violating law, after considering own personal situation If an individual chooses to violate law, they deserve to be held accountable for their behavior. Deterrence Theory - Works by example to prevent others - Depends on fear of penalties - Serve an example to general public Specific Deterrence - Focus on individual offenders to prevent re-offending - Use of punishment as a negative Rational Choice - Advocate specific deterrence - YCJS should deter individual - Predominant belief is that delinquent choose crime Does Punishment Deter Delinquency? - Some argue – get tough on crime approach  increase crime especially for repeat offenders - Research doesn’t find evidence that suggests threat of apprehension and punishment deters potential criminals Distinctions - Punishment may increase crime – institutionalization cuts of pro contact - Prior records is one of the best prediction of re-arrest - Specific deterrence can lead to delinquent behavior Methodological Individualism: weigh the costs/benefits – thereby decide – youth have different values from adults, system of norms not fully developed yet Deterrence and Rational Choice – Module 2.1 Deterrence and Rational Choice - Choice theorists believe that youth engage in delinquent behavior after weighing the consequences and benefits of their actions o Offenders are rational o Believe actions will be more beneficial rather than consequential - The decision making process can be influenced if there is greater likelihood of being punished for the behavior o The certainty of punishment determines action Classical School - Prior to Enlightenment (devil, demonism) Free Will  Freedom to make personal behavioral choices unencumbered by external factors - Particular individual form of evil and as a moral wrongdoing that is fed by personal choice - The extent of person seen as committing the act, and the degree to which it is seen as voluntary - Crime is a matter of choice - Individuals are responsible for behavior as they possess ftree will - Free will allows a person to have control over their actions Determinism  Behavior is caused by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences - Stealing a loaf of bread because hungry … Utilitarianism  Political and social actions should achieve the greatest good for the most people Classical school rejects determinism and embraces free will 4. A behavior decision or action is determined through individuals using free will and rational decision making in pursuit of goal 5. No crime would take place if the pain from the crime outweighed the potential gain 6. Focus is on act, or crime, not the individual Cessare Beccaria (1738-1974) - Essays on Crime and Punishment – 1764 - Use of free will by individuals to make rational choices and use of punishment as form of deterrence’s - Only exception is mitigating circumstances’ (age, mental capacity) reduce the impact on free will of behavior - Legitimacy of punishment is a result of the social contract (give up freedom, to have protection) - Fundamentally important – people behave how they find pleasure, ability to reason - Punishment should be based on degree of harm done rather than criminal intent not motivation (focus on act) - Purpose of punishment is to be a deterrence, not retribution: punishment viewed as a tool to prevent crime - Proportionate – fitting the crime Jeremy Betham (1748-1832) - An introduction to Principles of Moral Legislation 1789 - Overarching Principle: all parts of human nature are based on 2 things: pain and pleasure - Ideas based on concept of utility, to achieve the greatest happiness foe the greatest number of people - Approach to crime prevention is hedonistic calculus; to reduce crime, the pain society assigns for committing a crime must outweigh the pleasure gained from the crimainal activity (they weigh the consequences/benefits so if they see the consequences as worse they wont do it) - Agreed with beccaria by advocating punishment be certain and swift Beccaria and Bentham  Calculation of pain from punishment based on 3 things - 1. Experience with criminal punishment - 2. Knowledge of punishment imposed for certain types of behavior - 3. Awareness of what punishment has been given to spprehemnd offenders in the past Bentham – Neoclassical Theory: punishment should not vary by the circumstances or characteristics of the offender except in cases of mitigating circumstances. - Other factors constrain/chose free will - Creation of juvenile justice system – recognizes freewill of youths – still should be held accountable for actions – it is just their ability to excerise free will Relationship between culpability and free will Free will: ability to exercise control over our actions, decisions and behavior Culpability: actus reus, mens rea Condition of degree of determinism Summary - Humans are rational actors - Humans freely choose behavior based on rational calculations - Hedonistic Calculus (weigh benefits/consequences) - Risk of apprehension, seriousness of punishment, opportunity of criminal act, immediate criminal gain - Choice is directed by maximizing individual pleasure and minimizing pain - Choice can be controlled through punishments, with the correct amount of potential pain for violations of the social contract - Punishment is only effective if swift, severe and immediate Rational Choice Theory - Exercises in given circumstances - All actions occur out of self-interest - Perceived opportunity - Methodological Individualism: calculate which works best for them - Offender risks violating law, after considering own personal situation If an individual chooses to violate law, they deserve to be held accountable for their behavior. Deterrence Theory - Works by example to prevent others - Depends on fear of penalties - Serve an example to general public Specific Deterrence - Focus on individual offenders to prevent re-offending - Use of punishment as a negative Rational Choice - Advocate specific deterrence - YCJS should deter individual - Predominant belief is that delinquent choose crime Does Punishment Deter Delinquency? - Some argue – get tough on crime approach  increase crime especially for repeat offenders - Research doesn’t find evidence that suggests threat of apprehension and punishment deters potential criminals Distinctions - Punishment may increase crime – institutionalization cuts of pro contact - Prior records is one of the best prediction of re-arrest - Specific deterrence can lead to delinquent behavior Methodological Individualism: weigh the costs/benefits – thereby decide – youth have different values from adults, system of norms not fully developed yet am 3.1 Biological and Social Theories: Somatotypes - Early biological theories adhere to the principle that the basic determinants of human behavior, including delinquency are physiologically based or inherited - Nature vs Nurture debate – how much do we contribute to genetics and environment - Modern theorists suggests inner mechanism Cesare Lombroso - Atavism - Criminality is result of primitive instincts - They possess - 90% of criminals were atavists Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck - Mesomorphy Kretschmer - Began somatotypes - 1921 - individual: Cycloid  typically heavy set with soft bodies, shift between normality and abnormality, primarily commit non violent crimes Schizoid  Usually athletic and muscular, but can also be thin and lean Displastic  Mixed group William Sheldon (1898-1977) Endomorph  soft, round, overeight, comfortable, friendly Mesomorph  Athletic and muscular large bones, most associated with delinquency Ectomorph  Shy, reflective, avoid attracting attention to themselves Balanced Type  Average build, doesn’t show strong leanings to any characteristics Endotonic and Ectonic characteristics and dimensions are scored on scale of 1-7 - Balanced would be a 4 Sheldon & Glueck - studied 500 delinquent boys and 500 non - Delinquent were more likely to be mesomorphic - Characterized by traits suitable by aggressive acts – energy, insensitivity, physical strength - Mesomorphic Physiqe + Antisocial Temperament + poor social environment = potential for delinquency Cortes and Gatti - Improve on previous research by using self-reported data - Concluded that high motivation no proof Could be independent social factors - Family interaction - Peer influence - School Do you think delinquents have an identifiable somatotypes? 3.2 Biological and Biosocial Theories: Inheritance (concordance) - Assumption you are born with criminal tendencies, as well as inherited them from their parents Family Inheritance and Genetics - Richard L Dugdale (1877) - Juke family, legitimacy and pverty Twin Studies - assumption if heredity influences behavior – concordance rates should be higher among monozygotic twins - Monozygotic twins have more similar behavioral patterns - Findings support between heredity and risk of criminality – Antisocial - Suggests they are present at birth, therefore cannot be treated o Explains why everyone doesn’t become repeat offender even if they have poor social environment o Explains behavior of parents - The criminality of biological o Genes enable rather than cause criminal behavior Methodological - Studies prior to 1975 are methodologically weaker and find higher - None of the theories explain what exactly is inherited to create deviant - How do they determine if a pair is monozygotic or dygotic? – only those apprehended are included in samples Summary - Link between biological factors and delinquency is reciprocal o Environmental factors may shape and influence biological factors - Constellation of biological and environmental factors can predispose criminal behavior under certain circumstances 3.3 Biological and Biosocial Theories: Contemporary Biological Explanations - Symptoms: minimal brain dysfunction, low birth weight - Neurological problems are correlated with persistent antisocial behavior - Habitually aggressive youth – more likely to have abnormal EEG activities (activity in brain) - 25% of those who committed – had abnormal EEG - Brain dysfunctions can cause emotional ability, poor impulse control and excessive suspiciousness Brain dysfunction in temporal - Key predictor - Abnormal brain waves in temporal, and frontal lobe - 75% of aggressive, depressed patient, found to have brain dysfunction in frontal and temporal areas = emotional disability - Children with explosive behavior – key predictor – exposure to drugs and alcohol in womb - These can explain low IQ and ADHD and also help to explain irrational violence - Adolescent brain is less developed than we thought - Still developing: impulse control and affect regulation, ability to plan and consider long-term consequences, ability to effectively problem solve under stress, decision making ability: ability of 15 yr olds are close to adults (in lab) but in real life = poor decision making when with friends Learning Disabilities - Dyslexia, Aphasia (speech difficulty), Hyperkinesis (excessive largae and small muscular movements) - 2 Theories o Social Psychological  relationship between learning disability and delinquency is change of events … learning disability  poor academics  bad view of smart people  wrong people  delinquency. Therefore learning disability is pre cursers o Biosocial Explanation  Create both physical and psychological problems. They do not understand punishment/reward system. Less cognitive of social rules or sanctions - Juvenile patients with ADHD - 3 personality dimensions o Psychotisism  unemotionality, egocentric, here and now o Extraversion  sociable, irresponsible, dominant o Neuroticism  anxious, depression, tense, moody - Delinquents are more extraverted 3.3 Psychological Theories - Attitudes, beliefs, behaviors that develop through interaction with others - Three Generic Assumptions - 1. Internal, underying disturbance in individuals - 2. This disturbance developed in childhood - 3. Individual is one with problem Assumptions of Intelligence factor - 1. Less able to appreciate morality (direct) - 2. Less able to control emotions - 3. Affects other direct factors Intelligence and Delinquency - Those with low IQ will have higher rate of delinquency (many reasons) - <75 best cut off when diagnosing feeblemindedness - Then decreased to <50 (mentality of 8yr old) - Gordon (1976) – Low IQ inhibits the socialization process - Hirschi (1977) – weak relationship - Ward (1994) – weak relationship even indirectly through school/environmental factors Psychiatric/ Pscyhoanalytic Approach - Sickness, untreated disease - Rest on 5 underlying assumptions o Individuals develop in stages o Abnormalities can create conflict for a developing person before adolescence o Conflicts that develop occur because of disjuncture in instinctual drives and social constraints o Conflicts are painful, so they are pushed into subconscious mind o Personality develops defense mechanisms to handle these conflicts - Freud – it’s a disease o ID: pleasure principle o EGO: reality principle o SUPEREGO: moral imperatives Personality Perspective - 4 underlying assumptions o Agree with Freud  underlying conflicts o Conflicts began in childhood o One or more traits are responsible for outlook on life o Negative consequence is preceded by a negative cause Psychological Theories - Individuals have core personality - Glucks concept of core personality o Poor interpersonal o Resentment o Impulsive o Extraversion o Narcissisms o Hostility - Strongest predictor  presence of violence in home Psychopathy vs. Psychopathology Psychopathology: Disorder that causes distress to their and their family life (mental illness) – some internal neurological disorder Psychopathy – specific disorder, Key characteristic of psychopath: inability to imagine how others think or feel Anti Social Personal Disorder – no sense of empathy, impulsive, low level of guilt and anxiety Conduct Disorders - Delinquent acts are symptoms - Frequent lying, arson, cruelty to animals, vandalism - Often bullies, threatens, intimidates, doesn’t listen to parents - Young boys: hyperactivity, restlessness, risk taking, aggressiveness, beliefs and attitudes favorable to delinquent behavior ASPD - Over age of 18 - Ingrained pattern of life - Under age of 18  conduct disorder because their patterns of behavior is symptoms 4.1 Differential Association Theory: Interpersonal and Situational Theories Major assumptions: - Behavior is flexible, not fixed, can change depending on situation - Delinquency occurs under same conditions as non-delinquent behavior  the same person commit both delinquent and non delinquent acts - Most delinquency occurs within a group concept Arguing 2 things - Influence of peers and situational factors can have impact on decision to commit act – situational decision - Primary cause is outside person, not within them, not long term behavioral pattern or defective character trait - Behavior is delinquent  not person Differential Association - Learned through process – support committing crime - All significant human behavior is learned and crime is not substantively different than other behavior if opportunity for crime is present - One learns to commit crimes through others through their norms - Criminal behavior is part of social environment and not innate - Edwin Sutherland Theoretical propositions 1. Criminal Behavior is learned 2. Learned through communicating/interacting with others 3. Main part of learning process occurs in intimate, personal groups 4. Criminal behavior is learned – techniques of committing crime, the specific direction of motives and drives 5. Specific direction of motives is learned from definitions of legal codes as favorable or unfavorable 6. Person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violations of law Degree of differential associations - Frequency - Durations - Priority - Intensity All propositions have 3 interrelated concepts 1. Normative culture conflict
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