Quiz 2 Notes.docx

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Software Engineering
SE 101
Edgar Mateos

SE101 Quiz 2 Notes October 25, 2012 Measurements, Units, and Measurement Error Terms  Measurement o Observed physical quantity o Two parts: 1. Numerical value 2. Reference standard consisting of a combination of units o Should be accurate and repeatable  Unit o Standard quantity used as a reference for measurements o Specific reference quantities used in measurements o Eg: Metres, feet, amperes, and newtons  Dimensions o Quantity measured o Eg: Distance, current, and force Unit Systems  Absolute o Use mass as a fundamental unit  Gravitational o Use force as a fundamental unit  Hybrid o Use both mass and force and fundamental units  Popular unit systems o SI (Systeme International d’Unites)  Commonly known as “International System of Units”  Absolute unit system  Seven base units  m  A  kg  mol  s  cd  K o FPS (Foot-Pound-Second)  Gravitational unit system  Widely used in NA  Include:  psi  in  mi  sec  ft  lb  Writing quantities with units o Number/formula – half/full space – SI unit symbols o 59.7u kg  Note: Italics for variables Symbol Unit Name Dimension m Metre Distance kg Kilograms Mass s Second Time K Kelvin Temperature A Ampere Current mol Mole Particle Count cd Candela Light Intensity Error  Systematic o Consistent deviation in a measurement o Also called BIAS or OFFSET o Same sign/magnitude o Types  Natural  Environmental effects  Instrument error  Improper calibration  Personal error  Habits of observer  Random o Small variations in measurements o May be positive or negative o No obvious bias  Average bias approaches 0 as more measurements are taken o Possible sources  Exerting different pressure when measuring with micrometer  Reading tape measure from different angles  Connecting instrument in slightly different fashion each time  Terms o Precision  Measure of repeatability of measurement  Small random error o Accuracy  Measure of closeness of all measurements to true value  Small random error and small systematic error  Small total error o Bias  Measure of closeness of average measurement to true value  Small systematic error Notations  Fixed o No exponents o Not always obvious if digits are significant o 30 140.0  Scientific o One non-zero digit to left of decimal 4 o 3.01400 x 10  Engineering o Exponent that is a multiple of 3 o Easier to covert to SI unit system magnitude prefixes o 30.1400 x 10 3  Absolute errors o 112.3 V ± 0.5V  Relative errors o 112.4 (1± 0.4%)V Professional Engineering Ethics Ethics  Modern Ethical Theories o Consequentialist o Deontological  Utilitarianism  Rights ethics  Jeremy  John Locke Bentham and  Duty ethics or John Stuart formalism Mill  Immanuel  Ethical egoism Kant  Nationalism o Other  Altruism  Virtue ethics  Aristotle  Existentialists  Feminist ethics  PEO Code of Ethics o PEO has responsibility for establishing, maintaining, and developing standards of professional ethics among members o Section 77 of Ontario Regulation 941 states PEO Code of Ethics  Enforced by law o Duties 1. General Duties Maintain high ideals of personal honour and professional integrity Perform professional engineering services with competence 2. Duty to Society  Regard practitioner’s duty to public welfare as paramount  Endeavor at all times to enhance public regard for practitioner’s profession 3. Duty to Employers  Keep trade secrets and protect confidential information  Disclose all conflicts of interest 4. Duty to Clients  Disclose any conflict of interest that may hinder rendering of services to client  Inform clients in writing of any limitations on practitioner’s services due tot practitioner’s status as employee 5. Duty to Colleagues  Co-operate with other professionals working on a project  Refuse to secretly review work of others  Give proper credit for work of others 6. Duty to Profession  Maintain honour of profession and report unprofessional, dishonest, or unethical conduct by any other practitioner  Ethics in the workplace o Professional behavior  Courtesy  Punctuality  Appropriate attire o Teamwork  Increasingly important due to complexity of projects  Teams can only be effective in absence of harassment and discrimination  Engineers should strive for higher standard of conduct than min set by law o Ethical problems  When in doubt, use PEO Code of Ethics  Ethical dilemmas are not easily solved  In case of conflicting duties, one must consider all possible alternatives and choose least undesirable o Resolving disputes  Differences of opinion are common  Best way to settle dispute is through courteous, direct communication  Formal complaints should only be filed once all possible informal resolutions have been exhausted Professionalism  Professional misconduct & discipline o Professional misconduct cases handled by PEO o ON Regulation 941 define…  What engineers SHOULD do: Section 77  What engineers SHOULDN’T do: Section 72 o Includes  Harassment  Negligence of duties  Failure to safeguard life/property  Failure to correct or report unsafe situations  Failure to comply with applicable codes  Sealing a drawing not prepared/checked by practitioner  Working in an area where practitioner lacks competence
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