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ANTH228 Full Notes for the Course

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH 100
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Ch1HistoricalBackgroundThomasDwightFatherofForensicAnthropologyintheUSFormativePeriod18001938ParkmanmurderdismemberedbodyheadinfurnaceBodywasreassembledanddenturesfoundinfurnacethatmatcheddentistsmoldsLeutgertaccusedofkillinghiswifebodydissolvedinsausagefactory4smallpiecesofboneandherringwererecoveredThesebonesproventobehumanincourt2humanbonecollectionsstartedHamannToddandTerrycollectionsUsedregularlyforhumanskeletalresearchRuxtonkilledwifeandhermaidDismemberedmutilatedanddecomposedbodiesfoundinagullySuperimposedlivingphotoswithremainstomakeamatchConsolidationPeriod19391971WWIIUSCharlesESnowandlaterMildredTrotterformedCentralIdentificationLabinHawaiiandworkwasdonewithmilitaryrecordstodeterminestaturefrombonesKoreanWarUSTDaleStewartformedalabinJapanandworkwasdonetodetermineagefrombonesModernPeriod1971presentPhysicalanthropologysectionoftheAmericanAcademyofForensicSciencesisformedForensicAnthropologyDataBankinTennesseefoundedComputerdatabaseofinfoonmodernskeletonscollectsinfoondocumentedforensiccasesComputerprogramscancalculatesexandancestryScientificWorkingGroupforForensicAnthropologySWGANTHfoundedWritesguidelinesformethodsforforensicanthropologistsTheMedicolegalCommunityFreshbodiesMedicalexaminerscoronersforensicpathologistsDamageddecomposedbodiesforensicanthropologistsIDfromskeletonsmedicalrecordsforensicarchaeologistsretrieveremainsforensicodontologistsIDfromteethdentalrecordsForensicsinCourtFryeexperttestimonyisonlyvalidiftheprinciplesmethodsaregenerallyacceptedbyotherprofessionalsinthefieldFREexperttestimonymustbebasedonscientificdataandmethodsNogeneralacceptancecriteriaDaubertexperttestimonymusthaveatheorytechniquethathasbeentestedsubjecttopeerreviewandpublicationhasknownerrorratehasstandardscontrollingitsoperationwidespreadacceptancewithinrelevantscientificcommunitySnowsProtocolwhatyoushouldlookforwhenpresentedwithbonesAretheremainshumanandaretheyofarchaeologicalorforensicsignificance50yearsSingleindividualormultiplepeopleWhendiddeathoccurHowoldwasthepersonSexofpersonAncestryofpersonHeightweightstatureofpersonAretheresignsofinjurydiseaseanatomicalanomaliesthatwouldprovidepositiveIDofthepersonCauseofdeathMannerofdeathnaturalsuicidehomicideunknownDataGatheringMethodsScalesofMeasurementNominaldiscreteusuallynonoverlappinggroupsegSexancestryQualitativeOrdinalordereddiscretenonoverlappinggroupsegSmallmediumlargeQualitativeIntervalraretimetemperatureNonaturalzeropointeg0degreesisnttheabsenceofallheatratioisntmeaningfulQuantitativeRatiohaveazeropointfixedmeasurementunitsegcmkgUsedtomeasurestatureRatioismeaningfulsomeonewhois200lbsistwiceasheavyassomeone100lbsQuantitativeTechniquesAnthroposcopyvisualinspectiontoidentifynominalandordinaltraitsqualitativetraitssexageancestryOsteometrymeasuringhumanboneonaquantitativescalemmcmusingosteometricboardcalipersMetricmethodsquantifyanthroposcopiccharacteristicsusingratioscalesegmeasurebonelengthtohelpdetermineageChemicalmethodsanalyzingchemicalmakeupofskeletonandassociatedmattereggroundunderdecomposingbodyHistologycuttingoffthinslicesofboneteethandstainingthemtostudytheirmicrostructuretodeterminedemographicsespeciallyageDataAnalysisMethodsDecisiontablehelpsdealwithconflictinginfosoyoucanreachoneconclusionegalthoughtheskeletonhassomemalecharacteristicstherearemorefemalecharacteristicsthereforeitismostlikelyfemaleRangechartUsesrangesandaveragesUsefulforestimatingtimesincedeathageatdeathoranythingwithmultiplesourcesofdataIndexAsinglenumberobtainedfromdividingonemeasurementbyanotherandx100foregnasalindexnasalwidthnasalheightx100HelpsidentifyancestryDiscriminantFunctionscancombinemanymeasurementstoformasinglenumberusingaformulaDistinguishingpointisatthenumberthatrepresentsthesectioningpointUsedwhenevertherearediscretecategoriesthatcanbedistinguishedusingmetricmeasurementsageandancestryRegressionEquationsValueofonecharacteristicegstaturecanbedeterminedthoughwitherrorbyvaluesofothercharacteristicseglengthoffootFROMLECTURECSIEffecttheeffectthatforensicthemedtvprogramshaveonthegeneralpublicandthelegalsystemWhataretheseprogramsdoing1GivingaskewedviewofresourcesavailabletolawenforcementpeoplePolicelabtechsetcallhaveunrealisticexpectationstosolvecrimesMoreandmoreevidencethathastobestoredcataloguedparticularproblemwithDNAwhichhastobekeptinfridgesandthatsBecauseofallthisevidencebacklogs2GivingunrealisticexpectationstowouldbejurorsjudgesattorneysJurorsthinkthekindofevidenceforensicsciencecangivethemisincreasedfromwatchingshowsthanrealityJurorsoverestimatetheirownknowledgeofforensicsbecausetheyseeitallthetimeontvProsecutorscrowncounselHavetospendalotoftimeexplainingwhythereisalackofforensicevidenceorwhytheydonthavespecifictypesofevidenceegDNAevidenceisalwaysshowedinshowsDefenseattorneysHavetospendalotoftimeeducatingjurorsonthenatureofforensicsandwhytheevidencemightnotbeworthyinthiscasewhytheevidenceisnt100foolproofJudgesHavetospendalotoftimeinstructingthejuryaboutthenatureofforensicssimilartodefensejudgeshavetobeeducatedtrainingtakecoursesinforensicsciencesotheycanmakegooddecisionsAllthisresultsinlongertrialsinjuryselectionandquestionthemiftheywatchforensicshowsmoreandmoreexpertstestifyingmoreexpensivetrials3TeachingcriminalshowtobebettercriminalshowandhownottodothingsBleachhasbeentaughtinshowstodestroyDNAlessfingerprintsbecauseofmoregloveslesstorchingofcrimescenesbecausefiredoesntnecessarilydestroyevidence4InitiatingandperpetuatingmythsThesearetrueMethodmythssampleshavetobepreparedcantjustthrowitinthemachineandyougetyouranswerhavetoanalyzethedatafromtestsdontjustgetanimmediateanswertowhatasubstanceisdatabasesareonlyasstrongaswhatyouputinthemusuallycriminalsareonfilenoteveryoneintheworldMythsaboutamountofevidencelessthatpeoplethinkevidencehastobeinterpretedTimeframesinwhichstuffcanbedonepreppingsamplesrunningtestsmultipletimesanalyzingdatasendingdatatootherlabsRolesandresponsibilitiesofpeopleininvestigativeteamjobofCSIofficerisonlytogatherevidenceandsendittolabIfyouevermakeamistakeyoureoutLabguysonlyworkinlabsInsummaryrolesareveryspecialized
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