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University of British Columbia
ANTH 100

thJan 14Primate characteristics Sensory organsStereoscopic colour vision eyes face the same direction and have significant overlap of fields of visionFovea Centralis hole in retina that allows us to focus on one pointTouch more nerve endings in hands fingers etcCaused by our Arboreal Existence living in trees need to be able to focus on branches and feel wear to grasp etcBrainEmphasis on visual acuityBalance good idea of where we are in relation to the groundDeEmphasis on the olfactory poor sense on smell flat facesnosesDentitionFewer teethSmaller mouthsSmaller caninesTrend away from teeth as a weapon or for hunting Lack of muzzleSkeletal AnatomyBrachiation virtual full range of motionPentadactlyly 5 digits on each appendage pick things up manipulate objectsOpposable thumbs allows for fine motor controlForamen Magnum allows us to stand up and look forward at the same time caused by attachment of the neck to skullSocial Behavior Female sexual receptivity no mating seasonLong period of offspring dependency Basis for sociality in many species femalecenteredPrimatologyStudy of nonhuman primatesJane Goodall Diane Fossey Birute GaldikasMan The Hunter HypothesisSavannaDwelling drought that reduced the forest allowing ancestors to migrate out of trees and entered into the savanna Sparse environmentRequires expansive food gathering activities Sharing forms basis of sociality Tool Making unable to hunt with fewernon sharp teethsoft nailsDevelops in response to leave the forestFuels brain growth mealAndrocentricBias in the remainsTends to see male activities as driving human evolution TestingChimps make toolsChimps huntChimps share foodMaybe hunting and tool making were already part if spectrum of behaviors inherited from our primate ancestryMaybe other activitiesimplements are what distinguish us from the apes Note Last common ancestors with chimps was the Proconsul 8 to 13 million years BP thJan16 Midterm is on the first 4 chapters Can be on stuff not taught in classDont need to know exact dates but know broad scheme of human evolution major terms and be able to think critically about that scheme in relations to human cultureAnthropologists names especially ones mentioned in class mcQuestion on classification system dont memorize chartMajor differences of different branches on the tree3334 multiplechoice questions3 topic choices for 1 essayHominini General Characteristics These are more like trends than absolutesFull time bipedalism Can be inferred from skulls as well as pelvic leg bonesBrain size increases In early form remains little different than an ape but evidence of increasing cranial capacitiesGeneralists Able to perform many tasks openended behavioral complex we can run marathonsPotential Hominins Sahelanthropus tchadensis6 to 7 million year BP before presentPerhaps ancestral to all hominins Orrorin tugenensisArdipithecus earliest found fossils of a hominin A ramidus 45 to 6 million years BP hominins Fragmentary but many individualsAKadaba 52 to 58 million years BPAustraliopithecines Lucy
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