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Anth 228 Midterm 1 Review.pdf

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ANTH 100
Darlene Weston

Anth 228Midterm ReviewCSI Effect1Skewed view of resources available to law enforcement personnel2Increased expectations of jurors judges and attorneys3Given criminals insight into how and how not4Initiated and perpetuated myths about reality and limitations of forensic scienceJurorHave unrealistic expectations of forensic evidence and investigation techniquesOverestimation of knowledge of forensic methodsAttorneysHave to do more work to understand evidenceProsecutorsoExplain why forensic evidence not presentapplicableDefense AttorneysoEducate jurors on true nature of forensic science most techniques and practices by nature never 100 definitiveJudgesEnsure jurors understand limitations of forensic evidenceMore educated in forensic science to provide fair judgements and recognize when forensic testimony has overstepped boundariesResultsLonger trialslonger voir dire jury selection more expert testimonyTrials become more expensiveCriminalsIncreased knowledge of potential for evidenceoBleach to clean blood and destroy DNAoIncrease use of glovesoKnowing fire doesnt destroy evidenceLaw Enforcement Unrealistic expectations of police investigators and lab techniciansMore pieces of physical evidenceoProblems keeping track of it alloStorage problems DNA refrigerationoCreation and maintenance of databasesCreation of Forensic Science Myths1Capabilities of testsanalytical methodsoSamples need to be preparedprocessed before analysisoDatabases that can search for any kind of product DO NOT EXISToDatabases w fingerprintsDNA only have data previously enteredoAnalysis runs 15mins to hours2Amount of evidence usually found at a crime sceneoPerception that ample evidence is left for investigators oCriminals educatedless evidenceoPhysical evidence cant lie but must be interpreted3Time frame for techniques and testsoGood science takes time to be performed properlyoResults need to be verified and tests repeated4Role of CSIs and team membersoRole of CSI is to ONLY gather evidence at crime sceneoLab staff process and analyzeoMost forensic scientists rarely visit crime scenes if everWhat is Forensic AnthropologyIntersects anthropology and forensic studiesAnthropologystudy of humankindBiological AnthropologyStudy of human biology within evolutionary frameworkForensic AnthropologyDeals with human skeletal remains physical anthro in legal settingWhat Do Forensic Anthropologists Do1Determine ancestry sex age living height2Identify nature oftraumas and their causative agents if applicable3Determine time since death based on decomposition4Assist in location and recovering buried or surface remains in a manner that all evidence relevant is collected5Provide info useful in identifying deceasedForensic Anthropologists StudyDecedentsSkeletons of deceased personsPeople who have died within 50 years when not in care of physiciano50 years because perpetrator witnesses and relatives may still be aliveForensic Anthros in BCFall under jurisdiction of BC Coroners Service they investigate all sudden and unexpected deathsAre consulted on case by case basis when soft tissue degenerated to point where forensic pathologist cant determine demographic info TSD andor cause of deathNo full time FAs in CanadaoWork at collegesunismuseumsFAs may also ID victims of mass disasters where remains dismembereddisfiguredoPlane crashes fires natural disastersMay IDstudy persons of historical interestoRomanovsForensic Anthropology ProtocolClyde C Snow 19821Are remains human 11 Of medicolegal significance 50 years2Are remains of single or multiple individuals3When did death occur4Age of decedent5Sex of decedent6Ancestry of decedent7Statureweightphysique of decedent8Signs of disease injury anomalies to help with ID9Cause of death Gunshot blunt force trauma10Manner of death Natural homicide accidentData Gathering Methods1AnthroposcopyoVisual inspection of qualitative traits sometimes with help of xrayshand held lensoMost common method because its accessibleoVisual exam is subjective but leads to proper sex ID 8090 of the timeoMost visible traits also help ID demographic2OsteometryoMeasurement ofhuman bone on quantitative scaleoSpecial devices calipers osteometric board mandibulometeroMetric methods quantity using ratio level scales eg humerus x5rough height3Chemical MethodsoAnalyzing chemical makeup of bonesteethoAnalyzing of associated matter ground beneath decomposed bodyoStable isotope analysis4HistologyoStudy of microstructures of bonesteethoRequire special instruments not always available to FAs4 Ratio Scales1Nominal classification of data into descrete non overlapping categoriesoSex and ancestral groupsoQUALITATIVE bc it divides into categories that are non numerical MF2Ordinal non overlapping categories ordered SMLoQUALTIATIVE3Interval rare usually only time and temperature
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